In comparative serological studies of dianthoviruses, reverse passive haemagglutination inhibition (RPHI) tests distinguished between sweet clover necrotic mosaic virus (SCNMV) and each of a Swedish isolate of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV-SW), the clover primary leaf necrosis strain of RCNMV (RCNMV-C) and carnation ringspot virus (CRSV). Twenty-one monoclonal antibodies prepared against SCNMV were highly specific and failed to react with RCNMV-SW, RCNMV-C or CRSV when tested by RPHI. The extent of the differences between these dianthoviruses was assessed by direct ELISA using polyclonal antibodies. No heterologous reaction was detected by direct ELISA, but indirect ELISA revealed a distant serological relationship between CRSV and each of the other viruses. This is the first report of a positive serological relationship between CRSV and other dianthoviruses.


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