1887

Abstract

SUMMARY

Five phages which are morphologically similar to coliphage T7 but attack other host bacteria have been compared to T7 and to its relative, T3, by the following criteria: () cross-reactivity with antisera against T7 and T3, () DNA base sequence homologies, as determined by the Ct technique, () synthesis of two phage-coded enzymes: RNA polymerase and SAMase, () patterns of phage-directed protein synthesis, as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography, () SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of phage coat subunits. As judged by all these criteria, phage PX3 is not related to T7; thus, morphological similarity was attributed to convergent evolution. The other phages, i.e. phage IV, phage gh-1, phage ViIII and phage No. 11, were considered to be related to T7 on the basis of similarities in the patterns of phage-coded proteins and because, early after infection, these phages induced, as T7 does, an RNA polymerase which specifically transcribes the DNA of the homologous phage. Phages IV and No. 11 also induced the early synthesis of SAMase (previously only known to occur upon T3 infection). With the exception of phage IV, however, DNA base sequence homologies with T7 or T3 seem to be poor or non-existent. The tested phages, again with the exception of phage IV, did not react with antiserum against T3 or T7.

It is concluded that a particular pattern of phage-directed protein synthesis (as characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and enzyme tests) may provide evidence for phylogenetic relationships between phages, even in cases where other criteria, such as genetic recombination, serological cross-reaction, and DNA base sequence homologies, fail to indicate relatedness.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-43-1-57
1979-04-01
2021-10-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/43/1/JV0430010057.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-43-1-57&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams M. H. 1959 In Bacteriophages New York: Interscience;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adams M. H., Wade E. 1954; Classification of bacterial viruses: the relationship of two serratia phages to coli-dysentery phages T3, T7 and D44. Journal of Bacteriology 68:320–325
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Adolph K. W., Haselkorn R. 1972; Comparison of the structures of blue-green algal viruses LPP-1M and LPP-2 and bacteriophage T7. Virology 47:701–710
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beier H., Hausmann R. 1974; T3 × T7 phage crosses leading to recombinant RNA polymerases. Nature, London 251:538–540
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bessler W., Freund-Mölbert E., Knüfermann H., Rudolph C., Thurow H., Stirm S. 1973; A bacteriophage-induced depolymerase active on Klebsiella K11 capsular polysaccharide. Virology 56:134–151
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bradley D. E. 1967; Ultrastructure of bacteriophages and bacteriocins. Bacteriological Reviews 31:230–314
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Britten R. J., Davidson E. H. 1976; DNA sequence arrangement and preliminary evidence on its evolution. Federation Proceedings 35:2151–2157
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Britten R. J., Kohne D. E. 1968; Repeated sequences in DNA. Science, New York 161:529–540
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Burgei E., Hershey A. D. 1963; Sedimentation rates as a measure of molecular weight of DNA. Biophysical Journal 3:309–321
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chamberlin M., McGrath J., Waskell L. 1970; New RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli infected with bacteriophage T7. Nature, London 228:227–231
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dayhoff M. O. 1976; The origin and evolution of protein superfamilies. Federation Proceedings 35:2132–2138
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Davis R. W., Hyman R. W. 1971; A study in evolution: the DNA base sequence homology between coliphages T7 and T3. Journal of Molecular Biology 62:287–301
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Drake J. W. 1970 In The Molecular Basis of Mutation pp 178 San Francisco. Holden-Day
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Dunn J. J., Bautz F. A., Bautz E. K. F. 1971; Different template specificities of phage T3 and T7 RNA polymerases. Nature New Biology 230:84–96
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fenner F. 1976; The classification and nomenclature of viruses. Summary of results of meetings of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses in Madrid, September 1975. Virology 71:371–378
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gefter M., Hausmann R., Gold M., Hurwitz J. 1966; The enzymatic methylation of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid. X. Bacteriophage T3-induced S-adenosylmethionine cleavage. Journal of Biological Chemistry 241:1995–2005
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gelb L. D., Kohne D. E., Martin M. A. 1971; Quantitation of simian virus 40 sequences in African green monkey, mouse and virus-transformed cell genomes. Journal of Molecular Biology 57:129–145
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hausmann R. 1976; Bacteriophage T7 genetics. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology 75:77–110
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hausmann R., Gomez B. 1967; Amber mutants of bacteriophages T3 and T7 defective in phage-directed deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. Journal of Virology 1:779–792
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hausmann R., Härle E. 1971; Expression of the genomes of the related bacteriophages T3 and T7. In Proceedings of the First European Biophysics Congress vol 1 pp 467–488 Edited by Broda E., Locker A., Springer-Lederer H. Vienna: Wiener medizinische Akademie;
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hausmann R., Tomkiewicz C. 1976; Genetic analysis of template specificity of RNA polymerases (gene 1 products) coded by phage T3 × T7 recombinants within gene 1. In RNA Polymerase pp 731–743 Edited by Losick R., Chamberlin M. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hyman R. W., Brunovskis I., Summers W. C. 1974; A biochemical comparison of the related bacteriophages T7, ϕI, ϕII, W31, H and T3. Virology 57:189–206
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Issinger O. G., Hausmann R. 1973; Synthesis of bacteriophage-coded gene products during infection of Escherichia coli with amber mutants of T3 and T7 defective in gene 1. Journal of Virology 11:465–472
    [Google Scholar]
  24. King M. C., Wilson A. C. 1975; Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science, New York 188:107–116
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kwiatkowski B., Beilharz H., Stirm S. 1975; Disruption of Vi bacteriophage III and localization of its deacetylase activity. Journal of General Virology 29:267–280
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lee L. F., Boezi J. A. 1966; Characterization of bacteriophage gh-1 for Pseudomonas putida. Journal of Bacteriology 92:1821–1827
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Olsen R. H., Metcalf E. S., Todd J. K. 1968; Characteristics of bacteriophages attacking psychrophilic and mesophilic pseudomonads. Journal of Virology 2:357–364
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Rudolph C., Freund-Mölbert E., Stirm S. 1975; Fragments of Klebsiella bacteriophage No. 11. Virology 64:236–246
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Studier F. W. 1973; Analysis of bacteriophage T7 early RNAs and proteins on slab gels. Journal of Molecular Biology 79:237–248
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Studier F. W., Movva N. R. 1976; The SAMase gene of bacteriophage T3 is responsible for overcoming host restriction. Journal of Virology 19:136–145
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Subak-Sharpe J. H. 1971 In Strategy of the Viral Genome pp 383–394 Edited by Wolstenholme G. E. W., O’Connor M. A Ciba Foundation Symposium, London: Churchill Livingstone;
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Summers W. C. 1972; Regulation of RNA metabolism of T7 and related phages. Annual Review of Genetics 6:191–202
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Towle H. C., Jolly J. F., Boezi J. A. 1975; Purification and characterization of bacteriophage gh-1-induced deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase from Pseudomonas putida. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 250:1723–1733
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Wassermann M. M., Seligmann E. 1953; Serratia marcescens bacteriophages. Journal of Bacteriology 66:119–120
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Wildy P. 1971; Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. First Report of the International Committee on Nomenclature of Viruses. In Monographs in Virology No. 5 Basel: Karger;
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Yamamoto K. R., Alberts B. M., Benzinger R., Lawhorne L., Treiber G. 1970; Rapid bacteriophage sedimentation in the presence of polyethylene glycol and its application to large-scale virus purification. Virology 40:734–744
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-43-1-57
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-43-1-57
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error