1887

Abstract

Summary

The interaction in mesophyll protoplasts of two strains of raspberry ringspot virus, RRV-S and RRV-E, was studied using fluorescent antibody to detect strain-specific antigen. Staining with fluorescent antibody was weak and generalized unless the protoplasts were also infected with tobacco rattle virus (TRV), which induces RRV to form antigen aggregates and was therefore used routinely to make RRV antigen more easily detectable.

When tobacco protoplasts were inoculated simultaneously with equal amounts of the two RRV strains, both strain-specific antigens were produced in more than half the protoplasts. The proportion of protoplasts producing antigen aggregates of both strains depended on the ratio of particles of the two strains in the inoculum, but RRV-S had a greater specific infectivity than RRV-E and tended to dominate unless this difference was compensated for. Adding an equal amount of RRV-S to an inoculum of RRV-E decreased the proportion of protoplasts producing RRV-E antigen aggregates. When one RRV strain and TRV were inoculated before the other strain, the strain inoculated second produced antigen aggregates in fewer protoplasts than when it followed a first inoculation with TRV only. Exclusion of the second strain increased with increasing interval between inoculations and was not overcome by increasing the inoculum virus concentration. It was less strong in RRV-E-inoculated than in RRV-S-inoculated protoplasts, in which it was total by 12 h.

plants systemically infected with RRV-S did not develop additional symptoms after their recovered leaves were inoculated with RRV-E, but some RRV-S-infected protoplasts from recovered leaves produced RRV-E antigen after inoculation with RRV-E and TRV. This shows that some stages of RRV-E replication can occur in cells long infected with RRV-S. However, RRV-E antigen aggregates were produced in only 11% of the challenge-inoculated protoplasts, 99% of which became infected with TRV from the same inoculum, suggesting that partial protection exists and is virus-specific.

The phenomena of interference and cross protection seem best explained by competition in cells for virus-specific sites or material, possibly RNA polymerase, that can be used in the replication of either strain.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-40-3-647
1978-09-01
2022-01-29
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/jgv/40/3/JV0400030647.html?itemId=/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-40-3-647&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Atabekov J. G., Schaskolskaya N. D., Atabekova T. I., Sacharovskaya G. A. 1970; Reproduction of temperature-sensitive strains of TMV under restrictive conditions in the presence of temperature-resistant helper strain. Virology 41:397–407
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Barker H., Harrison B. D. 1977a; Infection of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts with raspberry ringspot virus alone and together with tobacco rattle virus. Journal of General Virology 35:125–133
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Barker H., Harrison B. D. 1977b; The interaction between raspberry ringspot and tobacco rattle viruses in doubly infected protoplasts. Journal of General Virology 35:135–148
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bennett C. W. 1951; Interference phenomena between plant viruses. Annual Review of Microbiology 5:295–308
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cadman C. H. 1960; Studies on the relationship between soil-borne viruses of the ringspot type occurring in Britain and Continental Europe. Virology 11:653–664
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cadman C. H., Harrison B. D. 1959; Studies on the properties of soil-borne viruses of the tobacco-rattle type occurring in Scotland. Annals of Applied Biology 47:542–556
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cassells A. C., Herrick C. C. 1977; Cross protection between mild and severe strains of tobacco mosaic virus in doubly inoculated tomato plants. Virology 78:253–260
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cooper J. I., Mayo M. A. 1972; Some properties of the particles of three tobravirus isolates. Journal of General Virology 16:285–297
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dawson J. R. O., Motoyoshi F., Watts J. W., Bancroft J. B. 1975; Production of RNA and coat protein of a wild-type isolate and a temperature-sensitive mutant of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus in cowpea leaves and tobacco protoplasts. Journal of General Virology 29:99–107
    [Google Scholar]
  10. De Zoeten G. A., Fulton R. W. 1975; Understanding generates possibilities. Phytopathology 65:221–222
    [Google Scholar]
  11. föglein F. J., kalpagam C., bates D. C., premecz G., nyitrai A., Farkas G. L. 1975; Viral RNA synthesis is renewed in protoplasts isolated from TMV-infected Xanthi tobacco leaves in an advanced stage of virus infection. Virology 67:74–79
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fulton R. W. 1951; Superinfection by strains of tobacco mosaic virus. Phytopathology 41:579–592
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gibbs A. J. 1969; Plant virus classification. Advances in Virus Research 14:263–328
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Harrison B. D. 1958a; Further studies on raspberry ringspot and tomato black ring, soil-borne viruses that affect raspberry. Annals of Applied Biology 46:571–584
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Harrison B. D. 1958b; Relationship between beet ringspot, potato bouquet and tomato black ring viruses. Journal of General Microbiology 18:450–460
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Harrison B. D., Murant A. F., Mayo M. A. 1972a; Two properties of raspberry ringspot virus determined by its smaller RNA. Journal of General Virology 17:137–141
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Harrison B. D., Murant A. F., Mayo M. A. 1972b; Evidence for two functional RNA species in raspberry ringspot virus. Journal of General Virology 16:339–348
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Harrison B. D., Woods R. D. 1966; Serotypes and particle dimensions of tobacco rattle viruses from Europe and America. Virology 28:610–620
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Holmes F. O. 1928; Accuracy in quantitative work with tobacco mosaic virus. Botanical Gazette 86:66–81
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kassanis B., Milne R. G. 1971; An unusual inclusion in plants infected with a tobacco mosaic virus mutant. Journal of General Virology 11:193–195
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kubo S., Harrison B. D., Barker H. 1975a; Defined conditions for growth of tobacco plants as sources of protoplasts for virus infection. Journal of General Virology 28:255–257
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kubo S., Harrison B. D., Robinson D. J., Mayo M. A. 1975b; Tobacco rattle virus in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts: infection and virus multiplication. Journal of General Virology 27:293–304
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Loebenstein G., Cohen J., Shabtai J., Coutts R. H. A., Wood K. R. 1977; Distribution of cucumber mosaic virus in systemically infected tobacco leaves. Virology 81:117–125
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Matthews R. E. F. 1949; Studies on potato virus X. II. Criteria of relationships between strains. Annals of Applied Biology 36:460–474
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Murant A. F., Mayo M. A., Harrison B. D., Goold R. A. 1972; Properties of virus and RNA components of raspberry ringspot virus. Journal of General Virology 16:327–338
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Murant A. F., Taylor C. E., Chambers J. 1968; Properties, relationships and transmission of a strain of raspberry ringspot virus infecting raspberry cultivars immune to the common Scottish strain. Annals of Applied Biology 61:175–186
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Otsuki Y., Takebe I. 1976; Double infection of isolated tobacco leaf protoplasts by two strains of tobacco mosaic virus. In Biochemistry and Cytology of Plant-Parasite Interaction pp 213–222 Edited by Tomiyama K., Daly J. M., Uritani I., Oku H., Ouchi S. Tokyo: Kodansha;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Otsuki Y., Takebe I. 1978; Production of mixedly coated particles in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts doubly infected by strains of tobacco mosaic virus. Virology 84:162–171
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rappaport I., Wu J. H. 1962; Release of inhibited virus infection following irradiation with ultraviolet light. Virology 17:411–419
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Sadasivan T. S. 1940; A quantitative study of the interaction of viruses in plants. Annals of Applied Biology 27:359–367
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Siegel A. 1959; Mutual exclusion of strains of tobacco mosaic virus. Virology 8:470–477
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Taliansky M. E., Atabekova T. I., Atabekov J. G. 1977; The formation of phenotypically mixed particles upon mixed assembly of some tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) strains. Virology 76:701–708
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Zaitlin M. 1976; Viral cross protection: more understanding is needed. Phytopathology 66:382–383
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-40-3-647
Loading
/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-40-3-647
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error