Fowl red cells are agglutinated by vaccinia virus, but the mechanism is different from the haemagglutination by myxoviruses. Clark & Nagler (1943) made an extensive study of this phenomenon, and investigated different races of chickens at different ages. They pointed out that the red cells of newly hatched chickens were consistently negative, but that from older birds about 50% were negative in the vaccinia haemagglutination reaction, regardless of age and race. Burnet & Stone (1946) found that red cells agglutinated by vaccinia virus were also agglutinated by cardiolipin and other lipids. Suzuki (1955) extended this work, and showed that while red cells of most White Leghorns were positive, the cells of Plymouth Rock chickens were negative in the vaccinia haemagglutination test.

Gilmour (1959, 1960, 1962,) in an extensive study of blood groups in fowls, considered the property of being agglutinated by vaccinia virus as a separate blood group Vh which was certainly not linked with three other blood groups (C, L and N) and probably not with a further two (A and B).


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