Strongyloidiasis is a neglected nematode infestation and can lead to hyperinfection syndrome. The onset of strongyloides hyper-infection syndrome is associated with a myriad of seemingly unrelated symptoms including diarrhoea, abdominal pain, urticaria, anaemia, sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Case report:

A 65-year-old female patient presenting with chief complaints of nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever and cough and was admitted to a teaching hospital on 2nd May 2019. The patient was a diagnosed case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura on Azathioprine (50mg, BD) and oral corticosteroid therapy (Prednisolone 60mg, OD) and was on treatment from the same hospital. The patient developed these symptoms after 23 days of immunosuppressive therapy. Patient was continued with previous medication along with supportive management after admission. Blood and urine sample was received in the department of Microbiology on 3rd May 2019 for culture and sensitivity testing. Urine sample was sterile after 24 hours of aerobic incubation. grew in blood culture and the isolate was susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin and colistin. Stool sample was received on 6th of May 2019 for routine microscopy. With wet mount preparation of stool specimen, numerous larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were seen. Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining was performed and oocysts of Cryptosporidium species were also seen. Wet mount preparation of sputum sample was also performed in which few larvae of were seen.


As corticosteroid is the mainstay of treatment in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura an early diagnosis and prompt specific anti-parasitic therapy is required to eradicate these infections

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