is a prevalent human fungal pathogen. Azoles are the most widely used antifungal drugs. Drug tolerance in bacteria is well defined and thoroughly studied, but in fungi, the definition of drug tolerance and the mechanism that drive it are not well understood. Here, we found that a large proportion of clinical isolates were intrinsically tolerant to fluconazole, and/or could be induced by high temperature (37°C) to become tolerant (conditionally tolerant). When treated with inhibitory doses of fluconazole, non-tolerant strains became tolerant by forming aneuploids involving different chromosomes, with chromosome R duplication as the most recurrent mechanism. Tolerance determines the ability to grow in the presence of fluconazole and other azoles, in a manner independent of the MIC. Both temperature conditional tolerance and the associated aneuploidy were sensitive to FK506, an inhibitor of calcineurin. Intrinsic and conditional tolerance were also abolished by deletions of genes encoding the calcineurin (CMP1 and CNB1). However, the dependence of tolerance on calcineurin could be bypassed by a different aneuploid chromosome. Thus, fluconazole tolerance in is regulated by temperature and by aneuploidy and is dependent upon aneuploidy, but this dependence can be bypassed by an additional aneuploidy.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error