Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported notifiable sexually transmitted disease in the world. causes 78 million cases annually of gonorrhoea worldwide. There are no vaccines and antibiotic-resistant organisms are circulating rapidly. The estradiol-treated female mouse model is the only animal model available for studying the host response against gonococci and biological significance of host-restricted bacterial-host cell interactions observed . However, mouse models have limitations such as cost, time and ethics. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new alternative models. The larval model is a simple, widely available, cost-effective, and powerful tool for studying microbial infections prior to any vertebrate animal testing. Here we report, for the first time, that can be used as an infection model for spp., focusing particularly on . We demonstrated dose-dependent larval death and recovery of viable gonococci from the host, visualised host-pathogen interactions using histopathology and confirmed the importance of insect haemocytes as an innate immune cell during infection. The model was also used to test the efficacy of antibiotics used to treat gonorrhoea. Our results demonstrate that can be used as a model to study pathogenesis and virulence of gonococcal infection in addition to rapid testing of antimicrobials.

  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error