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Abstract

Introduction. Infective endocarditis (IE) is an important clinical condition with significant morbidity and mortality among the affected population. A single etiological agent is identifiable in more than 90 % of the cases, however, polymicrobial endocarditis (PE) is a rare find, with a poor clinical outcome. Here we report a case of native valve dual pathogen endocarditis caused by Burkholderia cepacia and Aspergillus flavus in an immunocompetent individual. It is among unique occurrences of simultaneous bacterial and fungal etiology in IE.

Case presentation. A 30-year-old male was admitted to a cardiology institute with complaints of low grade intermittent fever and progressive shortness of breath for last two months. He was a known case of rheumatic heart disease and had suffered an episode of IE three years ago. On the basis of clinical presentation and the results of radiological investigations, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made. Paired blood samples for culture and sensitivity, sampled before the commencement of antimicrobial therapy, yielded growth of Burkholderia cepacia which was highly drug resistant. Sensitivity results-directed therapy consisting of tablet Trimethoprim–Sulfamethoxazole, two double-strength tablets 12 hourly, and Meropenem, 1 g IV every 8 h, was commenced. Despite mild relief of fever intensity, overall clinical condition did not improve and double valve replacement therapy was carried out. Excised valves were sent for microbiological analysis. Burkholderia cepacia was grown on tissue culture with a similar antibiogram to that previously reported from the blood culture of this patient. Direct microscopy of section of valvular tissue with 10 % KOH revealed abundant fungal hyphae. Patient serum galactomannan antigen assay was also positive. Histopathological examination of vegetations also revealed hyphae typical of species of the genus Aspergillus. The patient was successfully treated with meropenem, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole and voriconazole.

Conclusion. The hallmark of successful treatment in this case was exact identification of pathogens, antibiogram-directed therapy and good liaison between laboratory experts and treating clinicians.

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2018-03-08
2020-01-27
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