1887

Abstract

The influence of light on living organisms is critical, not only because of its importance as the main source of energy for the biosphere, but also due to its capacity to induce changes in the behaviour and morphology of nearly all forms of life. The common soil fungus responds to blue light in a synchronized manner, in time and space, by forming a ring of green conidia at what had been the colony perimeter at the time of exposure (photoconidiation). A putative complex formed by the BLR-1 and BLR-2 proteins in appears to play an essential role as a sensor and transcriptional regulator in photoconidiation. Expression analyses using microarrays containing 1438 unigenes were carried out in order to identify early light response genes. It was found that 2.8 % of the genes were light responsive: 2 % induced and 0.8 % repressed. Expression analysis in deletion mutants allowed the demonstration of the occurrence of two types of light responses, a -independent response in addition to the expected -dependent one, as well as a new role of the BLR proteins in repression of transcription. Exposure of to continuous light helped to establish that the light-responsive genes are subject to photoadaptation. Finally, evidence is provided of red-light-regulated gene expression and a possible crosstalk between the blue and red light signalling pathways.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.29000-0
2006-11-01
2020-08-09
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/152/11/3305.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.29000-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adams T, Wieser J, Yu J. 1998; Asexual sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans . Microbiol Mol Biol Rev62:35–54
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ballario P, Vittorioso P, Magrelli A, Talora C, Cabibbo A, Macino G. 1996; White collar-1, a central regulator of blue light responses in Neurospora , is a zinc finger protein. EMBO J15:1650–1657
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Berrocal-Tito G, Sametz-Baron L, Eichenberg K, Horwitz B. A, Herrera-Estrella A. 1999; Rapid blue light regulation of a Trichoderma harzianum photolyase gene. J Biol Chem274:14288–14294[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Berrocal-Tito G, Rosales-Saavedra M. T, Herrera-Estrella A, Horwitz B. A. 2000; Characterization of blue-light and developmental regulation of the photolyase gene phr-1 in Trichoderma harzianum . Photochem Photobiol71:662–668[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Betina V. 1984; Photoinduced conidiation in Trichoderma viride . Int J Microbiol2:55–68
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Blumenstein A, Vienken K, Tasler R, Purschwitz J, Veith D, Frankenberg-Dinkel N, Fischer R. 2005; The Aspergillus nidulans phytochrome FphA represses sexual development in red light. Curr Biol15:1833–1838[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bok J. W, Keller N. P. 2004; LaeA, a regulator of secondary metabolism in Aspergillus spp. Eukaryot Cell3:527–535[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Borkovich K. A, Alex Lisa A, Yarden O.32 other authors 2004; Lessons from the genome sequence of Neurospora crassa : tracing the path from genomic blueprint to multicellular organism. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev68:1–108[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Briggs W. R, Christie J. M. 2002; Phototropins 1 and 2: versatile plant blue-light receptors. Trends Plant Sci7:204–210[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Briggs W. R, Huala E. 1999; Blue-light photoreceptors in higher plants. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol15:33–62[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Carattoli A, Romano R, Ballario P, Morelli G, Macino G. 1991; The Neurospora crassa carotenoid biosynthetic gene (albino 3) reveals highly conserved regions among prenyltransferases. J Biol Chem266:5854–5859
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Casas-Flores S, Rios-Momberg M, Bibbins M, Ponce-Noyola P, Herrera-Estrella A. 2004; BLR-1 and BLR-2 are key regulatory elements for photoconidiation and mycelial grown in Trichoderma atroviride . Microbiology150:3561–3569[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Casas-Flores S, Rios-Momberg M, Rosales-Saavedra T, Olmedo-Monfil V, Herrera-Estrella A, Martínez-Hernández P. 2006; Cross talk between a fungal blue-light perception system and the cyclic AMP signaling pathway. Eukaryot Cell5:499–506[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Clevel W. S, Devlin S. J. 1998; Locally-weighted regression: an approach to regression analysis by local fitting. J Am Stat Assoc83:596–610
    [Google Scholar]
  15. DeBlasio S. L, Mullen J. L, Luesse D. R, Hangarter R. P. 2003; Phytochrome modulation of blue light-induced chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis . Plant Physiol133:1471–1479[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fankhauser C. 2001; The phytochromes, a family of red/far-red absorbing photoreceptors. J Biol Chem276:11453–11456[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Folta K, Spalding E. P. 2001; Opposing roles of phytochrome early cryptochrome-mediated growth inhibition. Plant J28:333–340[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Franchi L, Fulci V, Macin G. 2005; Protein kinase C modulates light responses in Neurospora by regulating the blue light photoreceptor WC-1. Mol Microbiol56:334–345[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Froehlich A. C, Liu Y, Loros J. J, Dunlap J. C. 2002; White collar-1, a circadian blue light photoreceptor, binding to the frequency promoter. Science297:815–819[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Froehlich A. C, Noh B, Vierstra R. D, Loros J, Dunlap J. C. 2005; Genetic and molecular analysis of phytochromes from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa . Eukaryot Cell4:2140–2152[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Galun E. 1971; Scanning electron microscopy of intact Trichoderma colonies. J Bacteriol108:938–940
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Glomset J. A, Gelb M. H, Farnsworth C. C. 1990; Prenyl proteins in eukaryotic cells: a new type of membrane anchor. Trends Biochem Sci15:139–142[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Greenberg M. L, Lopes J. M. 1996; Genetic regulation of phospholipids biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Microbiol Rev60:1–20
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gresik M, Kolarova N, Farkas V. 1988; Membrane potential, ATP, and cyclic AMP changes induced by light in Trichoderma viride . Exp Mycol12:295–301[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gresik M, Kolarova N, Farkas V. 1989; Light-stimulated phosphorylation of proteins in cell free extracts from Trichoderma viride . FEBS Lett12:185–187
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gressel J. A. R. W. 1983; Photomorphogenesis. In Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology , new seriesvol. 16B pp 603–639 Edited by Shropshire J. A. M. H.. Berlin: Springer;
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Harding R. W, Turner R. V. 1981; Photoregulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in albino and white-collar mutants of Neurospora crassa . Plant Physiol68:745–749[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. He Q, Liu Y. 2005; Molecular mechanism of light responses in Neurospora : from light-induced transcription to photoadaptation. Genes Dev19:2888–2899[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. He Q, Cheng P, Yang Y, Wang L, Gardner K. H, Liu Y. 2002; White collar-1, a DNA binding transcription factor and a light sensor. Science297:840–843[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Horwitz B. A, Gressel J, Malkin S. 1985; Photoperception mutants in Trichoderma: mutants that sporulate in response to stress but not light. Curr Genet9:605–613[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Jeong H.-J, Song M. H, Back J. H, Han D.-M, Wu X, Monnier V, Jahng K.-Y, Chae K.-S. 2002; The veA gene is necessary for the inducible expression by fructosyl amines of the Aspergillus nidulans faoA gene encoding fructosyl amino acid oxidase (amadoriase, EC 1.5.3). Arch Microbiol178:344–350[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Kolarova N, Gresik M, Haplová J. 1992; Light-activated adenyl cyclase from Trichoderma viride . FEMS Microbiol Lett72:275–278
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Kulkarni R. D, Kelkar H. S, Ralph R. A. 2003; An eight-cysteine-containing CFEM domain unique to a group of fungal membrane proteins. Trends Biochem Sci28:118–121[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Langfelder K, Streibel M, Jahn B, Haase G, Brakhage A. A. 2003; Biosynthesis of fungal melanins and their importance for human pathogenic fungi. Fungal Genet Biol38:143–158[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Lewis Z, Correa A, Schwerdtfeger C, Link K, Xie X, Gomer T, Thomas T, Ebbole D, Bell-Pedersen D. 2002; Overexpression of white collar-1 (WC-1) activates circadian clock-associated genes, but is not sufficient to induce most light-regulated gene expression in Neurospora crassa . Mol Microbiol45:917–931[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Linden H. 2002; Blue light perception and signal transduction in Neurospora crassa. In Molecular Biology of Fungal Development pp 165–185 Edited by Osiewacz H. D.. New York & Basel: Marcel Dekker;
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Linden H, Macino G. 1997; White collar 2, a partner in blue-light signal transduction, controlling expression of light-regulated genes in Neurospora crassa . EMBO J16:98–109[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Linden H, Ballario P, Macino G. 1997; Blue light regulation in Neurospora crassa . Fungal Genet Biol22:141–150[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Ma L, Li J, Qu L, Hager J, Chen Z, Zhao H, Deng X. W. 2001; Light control of Arabidopsis development entails coordinated regulation of genome expression and cellular pathways. Plant Cell13:2589–2607[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Madi L, McBride S. A, Bailey L. A, Ebbole D. J. 1997; rco-3 , a gene involved in glucose transport and conidiation in Neurospora crassa . Genetics146:499–508
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Rocha-Ramírez V, Omero C, Chet I, Horwitz B. A, Herrera-Estrella A. 2002; Trichoderma atroviride G-protein a-subunit gene tga1 is involved in mycoparasitic coiling and conidiation. Eukaryot Cell1:594–605[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Sambrook J, Fritsch E. F, Maniatis T. 1989; Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn.. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Sancar A, Sancar G. B. 1988; DNA repair enzymes. Annu Rev Biochem57:29–67[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Schmoll M, Franchi L, Kubicek C. P. 2005; Envoy, a PAS/LOV domain protein of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei), modulates cellulase gene transcription in response to light. Eukaryot Cell4:1998–2007[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Schwerdtfeger C, Linden H. 2000; Localization and light-dependent phosphorylation of white collar 1 and 2, the two central components of blue light signaling in Neurospora crassa . Eur J Biochem267:414–421[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Schwerdtfeger C, Linden H. 2003; VIVID is a flavoprotein and serves as a fungal blue light photoreceptor for photoadaptation. EMBO J22:4846–4855[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Sokolovsky V. Y, Lauter F, Muller-Rober B, Ricci M, Schmidhauser T. J, Russo V. E. A. 1992; Nitrogen regulation of blue light-inducible genes in Neurospora crassa . J Gen Microbiol138:2045–2049[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Sommer T, Chambers J. A. A, Eberle J, Lauter F. R, Russo V. E. A. 1989; Fast light-regulated genes of Neurospora crassa . Nucleic Acids Res17:5713–5723[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Tomita H, Soshi T, Inoue H. 1993; The Neurospora uvs-2 gene encodes a protein, which has homology to yeast RAD18, with unique zinc finger motifs. Mol Gen Genet238:225–233
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Ulm R, Baumann A, Oravecz A, Mate Z, Adam E, Oakeley E, Schafer E, Nagy F. 2004; Genome-wide analysis of gene expression reveals function of the bZIP transcription factor HY5 in the UV-B response of Arabidopsis . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A101:1397–1402[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Vasseur V, Van Montagu M, Goldman G. H. 1995; Trichoderma harzianum genes induced during growth on Rhizoctonia solani cell walls. Microbiology141:767–774[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Wang Z, Deak M, Free S. J. J. 1994; A cis-acting region required for the regulated expression of grg-1 , a Neurospora glucose-repressible gene. Two regulatory sites (CRE and NRS) are required to repress grg-1 expression. J Mol Biol18:65–74
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Wessels J. G. H, Asgeirsdottir S. A, Achuren F. H. J, de Vries O. M. H. 1991; Hydrophobin genes involved in formation of aerial hyphae and fruit bodies in Schizophyllum . Plant Cell3:793–799[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Yang Y. H, Dudoit S, Luu P, Lin D. M, Peng V, Ngai J, Speed T. P. 2002; Normalization for cDNA microarray data: a robust composite method addressing single and multiple slide systematic variation. Nucleic Acids Res30:e15[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.29000-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.29000-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error