1887

Abstract

The toxin–antitoxin operon of pSM19035 encodes three proteins: the global regulator, the labile antitoxin and the stable toxin. Accumulation of toxin free of antitoxin induced loss of cell proliferation in both and cells. Induction of a variant (Y83C) triggered stasis, in which cells were viable but unable to proliferate, without selectively affecting protein translation. In cells, accumulation of free toxin induced stasis, but this was fully reversed by expression of the antitoxin within a defined time window. The time window for reversion of toxicity by expression of antitoxin was dependent on the initial cellular level of . After 240 min of constitutive expression, or inducible expression of high levels of toxin for 30 min, expression of failed to reverse the toxic effect exerted by in cells growing in minimal medium. Under the latter conditions, inhibited replication, transcription and translation and finally induced death in a fraction (∼50 %) of the cell population. These results support the view that interacts with its specific target and reversibly inhibits cell proliferation, but accumulation of might lead to cell death due to pleiotropic effects.

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2006-08-01
2020-08-05
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vol. , part 8, pp. 2365 - 2379

Supplementary data showing the effect of ζ induction on gene expression of specific stress pathways [ PDF] (26 kb)



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