1887

Abstract

secretes a number of toxins by a type III system, and these are important in virulence. One of them, ExoS, is a bifunctional toxin, with a GTPase-activating protein domain, as well as ADP ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity. These two domains have numerous potential cellular targets, but the overall mechanism of ExoS action remains unclear. The effects of ExoS in a simple eukaryotic system, the yeast , using a tetracycline-regulated expression system were studied. This system allowed controlled expression of ExoS in yeast, which was not possible using a galactose-induced system. ExoS was found to be an extremely potent inhibitor of yeast growth, and to be largely dependent on the activity of its ADPRT domain. ExoS produced a dramatic alteration in actin distribution, with the appearance of large aggregates of cortical actin, and thickened disorganized cables, entirely dependent on the ADPRT domain. This phenotype is suggestive of actin stabilization, which was verified by showing that the cortical aggregates of actin induced by ExoS were resistant to treatment with latrunculin A, an agent that prevents actin polymerization. ExoS increased the numbers of mating projections produced following growth arrest with mating pheromone, and prevented subsequent DNA replication, an effect that is again dependent on the ADPRT domain. Following pheromone removal, ExoS produced altered development of the mating projections, which became elongated with a swollen bud-like tip. These results suggest alternative pathways for ExoS action in eukaryotic cells that may result from activation of small GTPases, and this yeast expression system is well suited to explore these pathways.

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2006-08-01
2019-11-21
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