1887

Abstract

A collection of 266 faecal isolates of from humans was assayed for the production of mitomycin C-inducible bacteriocins and screened using a PCR-based method for the presence of eleven colicins and seven microcins. Eight different colicins were detected and all seven microcins. Of the strains examined, 38 % produced a bacteriocin, 24 % produced a colicin and 20 % produced a microcin. Of the 102 bacteriocin-producing strains, 42 % produced one type of bacteriocin, 41 % produced two, 16 % produced three and one strain was found to produce four different bacteriocins. Strains producing more than one bacteriocin were more likely to be members of genetic group B2 and less likely to belong to genetic groups A or D. Several of the bacteriocins were found to co-occur in a strain more often than would be expected by chance: microcins H47 and M; colicin Ia and microcin V; colicins B and M; colicins E1 and M; colicins E1 and Ia. No bacteriocins released as a consequence of cell lysis were found to co-associate more often than expected by chance. Three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses are presented that might explain the high frequency of multiple bacteriocin production in strains: (1) expanded killing range, (2) expanded receptor repertoire and (3) fitness benefits in different environments.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28690-0
2006-11-01
2019-10-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/152/11/3239.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28690-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Braun, V., Patzer, S. I. & Hantke, K. ( 2002; ). Ton-dependent colicins and microcins: modular design and evolution. Biochimie 84, 365–380.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Center for Veterinary Medicine ( 1997; ). CVM Policy on Competitive Exclusion. FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine. http:://www.fda.gov/cvm/index/updates/complexcl.html
  3. Chao, L. & Levin, B. R. ( 1981; ). Structured habitats and the evolution of anticompetitor toxins in bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 78, 6324–6328.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Clermont, O., Bonacorsi, S. & Bingen, E. ( 2000; ). Rapid and simple determination of Escherichia coli phylogenetic group. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 4555–4558.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Czaran, T. L., Hoekstra, R. F. & Pagie, L. ( 2002; ). Chemical warfare between microbes promotes biodiversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 786–790.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Durrett, R. & Levin, S. ( 1997; ). Allelopathy in spatially distributed populations. J Theor Biol 185, 165–171.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dykes, G. A. & Hastings, J. W. ( 1997; ). Selection and fitness in bacteriocin producing bacteria. Proc R Soc Lond B 264, 683–687.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Feldgarden, M. & Riley, M. A. ( 1999; ). The phenotypic and fitness effects of colicin resistance in Escherichia coli K12. Evolution 53, 1019–1027.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Frank, S. A. ( 1994; ). Spatial polymorphism of bacteriocins and other allelopathic traits. Evol Ecol 8, 369–386.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Gillor, O., Kirkup, B. C. & Riley, M. A. ( 2004; ). Colicins and microcins: the next generation antimicrobials. Adv Appl Microbiol 54, 129–146.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gordon, D. M. & Riley, M. A. ( 1999; ). A theoretical and empirical investigation of the invasion dynamics of colicinogeny. Microbiology 145, 655–661.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gordon, D. M., Riley, M. A. & Pinou, T. ( 1998; ). Temporal changes in the frequency of colicinogeny in E. coli from house mice. Microbiology 144, 2233–2240.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gordon, D. M., Stern, S. E. & Collignon, P. J. ( 2005; ). The influence of the age and sex of human hosts on the distribution of Escherichia coli ECOR groups and virulence traits. Microbiology 151, 15–23.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Herzer, P. J., Inouye, S., Inouye, M. & Whittam, T. S. ( 1990; ). Phylogenetic distribution of branched RNA-linked multicopy single-stranded DNA among natural isolates of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 172, 6175–6181.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Johnson, J. R. & Stell, A. L. ( 2000; ). Extended virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli strains from patients with urosepsis in relation to phylogeny and host compromise. J Infect Dis 181, 261–272.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kerr, B., Riley, M. A., Feldman, M. W. & Bohannan, B. J. ( 2002; ). Local dispersal promotes biodiversity in a real-life game of rock-paper-scissors. Nature 418, 171–174.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kirkup, B. C. & Riley, M. A. ( 2004; ). Antibiotic-mediated antagonism leads to a bacterial game of rock-paper-scissors in vivo. Nature 428, 412–414.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Levin, B. R. ( 1988; ). Frequency-dependent selection in bacterial populations. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 319, 459–472.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Mobley, H. L. T. & Warren, J. W. ( 1996; ). Molecular pathogenesis and clinical management. Urin Tract Infect 3, 67–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Nandiwada, L. S., Schamberger, G. P., Schafer, H. W. & Diez-Gonzalez, F. ( 2004; ). Characterization of an E2-type colicin and its application to treat alfalfa seeds to reduce Escherichia coli O157 : H7. Int J Food Microbiol 93, 267–279.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ochman, H. & Selander, R. K. ( 1984; ). Standard reference strains of Escherichia coli from natural populations. J Bacteriol 157, 690–693.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Pugsley, A. P. & Oudega, B. ( 1987; ). Methods of studying colicins and their plasmids. In Plasmids, a Practical Approach, pp. 105–161. Edited by K. G. Hardy. Oxford: IRL Press.
  23. Ratledge, C. & Dover, L. G. ( 2000; ). Iron metabolism in pathogenic bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 54, 881–941.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Riley, M. A. & Gordon, D. M. ( 1992; ). A survey of Col plasmids in natural isolates of Escherchia coli and an investigation into the stability of Col plasmid lineages. J Gen Microbiol 138, 1345–1352.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Riley, M. A. & Gordon, D. M. ( 1996; ). The ecology and evolution of bacteriocins. J Ind Microbiol 17, 151–158.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Riley, M. A. & Gordon, D. M. ( 1999; ). A model of intraspecific microbial warfare. Trends Microbiol 7, 129–133.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Riley, M. A. & Wertz, J. E. ( 2002; ). Bacteriocins: evolution, ecology, and application. Annu Rev Microbiol 56, 117–137.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Smarda, J. & Macholan, L. ( 2000; ). Binding domains of colicins E1, E2 and E3 in the receptor protein BtuB of Escherichia coli. Folia Microbiol 45, 379–385.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tan, Y. & Riley, M. A. ( 1997; ). Nucleotide polymorphism in colicin E2 gene clusters: evidence for nonneutral evolution. Mol Biol Evol 14, 666–673.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28690-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28690-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 11, pp. 3239 - 3244

Primer pairs used for the detection of bacteriocins by PCR in [ PDF] (13 kb)



PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error