1887

Abstract

belongs to a group of periodontopathogenic bacteria and forms unique corroding colonies on solid medium due to twitching motility. It is believed that an -acetyl--galactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin on the cell surface contributes significantly to its pathogenicity and can be estimated by its haemagglutination (HA) activity. Recently, a plasmid, pMU1, from strain 1073 has been found; this plasmid affects pilus formation and colony morphology. To identify the gene involved in these phenomena, ORF 4 and ORFs 5–6 on pMU1 were separately subcloned into a shuttle vector, and the resultant plasmids were introduced into 23834. Transformants with the ORF 4 gene, which is identified to be a homologous gene of the type IV pilin gene-specific recombinase, lost their pilus structure and formed non-corroding colonies on a solid medium, whereas transformants with ORFs 5–6 exhibited the same phenotype as the host strain 23834. Southern analysis showed that the introduction of the ORF 4 gene into strain 23834 resulted in genomic recombination at the type IV pilin gene locus. The hybridization pattern of these transformants was similar to that of strain 1073. These results suggest that ORF 4 on pMU1 encodes a site-specific recombinase and causes genomic recombination of the type IV pilin gene locus. Furthermore, the introduction of ORF 4 into strain 23834 increased GalNAc-specific HA activity to a level equivalent to that of strain 1073. Although the morphological colony changes and loss of pilus structure are also observed in phase variation, genomic recombination of the type IV pilin gene locus did not occur in these variants. Moreover, an increase was not observed in the GalNAc-specific HA activity of these variants. These results suggested that the loss of pilus structure, the morphological change in colonies and the increase in HA activity due to plasmid pMU1 might be caused by a mechanism that differs from phase variation, such as a genomic recombination of the type IV pilin gene locus.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28490-0
2006-03-01
2019-09-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/152/3/815.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28490-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Azakami, H., Akimichi, H., Usui, M., Yumoto, H., Ebisu, S. & Kato, A. ( 2005a; ). Isolation and characterization of a plasmid DNA from periodontopathogenic bacterium, Eikenella corrodens 1073, which affects pilus formation and colony morphology. Gene 351, 143–148.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Azakami, H., Nakashima, H., Akimichi, H., Noiri, Y., Ebisu, S. & Kato, A. ( 2005b; ). Involvement of N-acetyl-d-galactosamine-specific lectin in the biofilm formation by the periodontopathogenic bacterium, Eikenella corrodens. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem (in press).
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen, C. K. & Wilson, M. E. ( 1992; ). Eikenella corrodens in human oral and non-oral infections: a review. J Periodontol 63, 941–953.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Decker, M. D., Graham, B. S., Hunter, B. S. & Liebowitz, S. M. ( 1986; ). Endocarditis and infections of intravascular devices due to Eikenella corrodens. Am J Med Sci 292, 209–212.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ebisu, S. & Okada, H. ( 1983; ). Agglutination of human erythrocytes by Eikenella corrodens. FEMS Microbiol Lett 18, 153–156.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Ebisu, S., Miki, Y., Fukuhara, H., Okada, H. & Nakao, M. ( 1981; ). An electron microscopic study on morphology of Eikenella corrodens. J Osaka Univ Dent Sch 21, 137–143.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ebisu, S., Nakae, H. & Okada, H. ( 1988; ). Coaggregation of Eikenella corrodens with oral bacteria mediated by bacterial lectin-like substance. Adv Dent Res 2, 323–327.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fulks, K. A., Marrs, C. F., Stevens, S. P. & Green, M. R. ( 1990; ). Sequence analysis of the inversion region containing the pilin genes of Moraxella bovis. J Bacteriol 172, 310–316.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Heinrich, D. W. & Glasgow, A. C. ( 1997; ). Transcriptional regulation of type 4 pilin genes and the site-specific recombinase gene, piv, in Moraxella lacunata and Moraxella bovis. J Bacteriol 179, 7298–7305.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hood, B. L. & Hirschberg, R. ( 1995; ). Purification and characterization of Eikenella corrodens type IV pilin. Infect Immun 63, 3693–3696.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kolenbrander, P. E., Andersen, R. N., Blehert, D. S., Egland, P. G., Foster, J. S. & Palmer, R. J., Jr ( 2002; ). Communication among oral bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66, 486–505.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Listgarten, M. A., Johnson, D., Dowotny, A., Tanner, A. C. R. & Socransky, S. S. ( 1978; ). Histopathology of periodontal disease in gnotobiotic rats monoinfected with Eikenella corrodens. J Periodont Res 13, 134–148.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. McMichael, J. C. ( 1992; ). Bacterial differentiation within Moraxella bovis colonies growing at the interface of the agar medium with the Petri dish. J Gen Microbiol 138, 2687–2695.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Miki, Y., Ebisu, S. & Okada, H. ( 1987; ). The adherence of Eikenella corrodens to guinea pig macrophages in the absence and presence of anti-bacterial antibodies. J Periodont Res 22, 359–365.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Nakae, H., Yumoto, H., Matsuo, T. & Ebisu, S. ( 1994; ). Mitogenic stimulation of murine B lymphocytes by the N-acetyl-d-galactosamine specific bacterial lectin-like substance from Eikenella corrodens. FEMS Microbiol Lett 116, 349–354.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Noiri, Y., Li, L. & Ebisu, S. ( 2001; ). The localization of periodontal-disease-associated bacteria in human periodontal pockets. J Dent Res 80, 1930–1934.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Rao, V. K. & Progulske-Fox, A. ( 1993; ). Cloning and sequencing of two type 4 (N-methylphenylalanine) pilin genes from Eikenella corrodens. J Gen Microbiol 139, 651–660.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Stein, D. C., Silver, L. E., Clark, V. L. & Young, F. E. ( 1983; ). Construction and characterization of a new shuttle vector, pLES2, capable of functioning in Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gene 25, 241–247.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Strom, M. S. & Lory, S. ( 1993; ). Structure-function and biogenesis of the type IV pili. Annu Rev Microbiol 47, 565–596.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Tanner, A. C., Haffer, C., Bratthall, G. T., Visconti, R. A. & Socransky, S. S. ( 1979; ). A study of the bacteria associated with advancing periodontitis in man. J Clin Periodontol 6, 278–307.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Tonjum, T., Weir, S., Bovre, K., Progulske-Fox, A. & Marrs, C. F. ( 1993; ). Sequence divergence in two tandemly located pilin genes of Eikenella corrodens. Infect Immun 61, 1909–1916.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Villar, M. T., Helber, J. T., Hood, B., Schaefer, M. R. & Hirschberg, R. L. ( 1999; ). Eikenella corrodens phase variation involves a posttranslational event in pilus formation. J Bacteriol 181, 4154–4160.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Villar, M. T., Hirschberg, R. L. & Schaefer, M. R. ( 2001; ). Role of the Eikenella corrodens pilA locus in pilus function and phase variation. J Bacteriol 183, 55–62.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wolfgang, M., van Putten, J. P., Hayes, S. F., Dorward, D. & Koomey, M. ( 2000; ). Components and dynamics of fiber formation define a ubiquitous biogenesis pathway for bacterial pili. EMBO J 19, 6408–6418.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Yamazaki, Y., Ebisu, S. & Okada, H. ( 1981; ). Eikenella corrodens adherence to human buccal epithelial cells. Infect Immun 31, 21–27.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Yamazaki, Y., Ebisu, S. & Okada, H. ( 1988; ). Partial purification of a bacterial lectin-like substance from Eikenella corrodens. Infect Immun 56, 191–196.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Yumoto, H., Nakae, H., Yamada, M., Fujinaka, K., Shinohara, C., Ebisu, S. & Matsuo, T. ( 2001; ). Soluble products from Eikenella corrodens stimulate oral epithelial cells to induce inflammatory mediators. Oral Microbiol Immunol 16, 296–305.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28490-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28490-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error