1887

Abstract

, an important swine pathogen, is the aetiological agent of Glässer's disease. It is responsible for cases of polyserositis, meningitis and pneumonia in young pigs. To date, 15 serotypes have been described, although several non-typable isolates are frequently recovered from diseased animals. The pathogenesis of infection is poorly understood. To cause meningitis, would have to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of to interact with porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells (PBMEC). It was demonstrated that the serotype 5 reference strain of , Nagasaki (originally recovered from a case of meningitis), was able to adhere at very high levels to and, most importantly, invade PBMEC. These capacities were confirmed by electron microscopy. serotype 7 (strain WF 83), used as negative control, was not able to adhere to or invade PBMEC. Comparisons of the levels of adhesion and invasion by several field strains from different serotypes isolated from cases of either meningitis or pneumonia showed that isolates of serotypes 4 and 5 had a higher invasion capacity than isolates belonging to other serotypes. Inhibition studies demonstrated that PBMEC invasion by required rearrangement of actin microfilaments and microtubular cytoskeletal elements but not active bacterial DNA, RNA or protein synthesis. Characterization studies demonstrated that proteinaceous invasin(s) does not seem to play a major role in entry of into PBMEC. Intracellular viable were found in PBMEC up to 6 h after antibiotic treatment. Even at high bacterial doses, was not toxic to PBMEC. In swine, the invasion of endothelial cells of the BBB may play an important role in the pathogenesis of meningitis caused by .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28312-0
2006-01-01
2020-01-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/152/1/135.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28312-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Amano H, Shibata M, Kajio N, Morozumi T. 1994; Pathologic observations of pigs intranasally inoculated with serovar 1, 4 and 5 of Haemophilus parasuis using immunoperoxidase method. J Vet Med Sci56:639–644[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Amano H, Shibata M, Takahashi K, Sasaki Y. 1997; Effects on endotoxin pathogenicity in pigs with acute septicemia of Haemophilus parasuis infection. J Vet Med Sci59:451–455[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Badger J. L, Kim K. S. 1998; Environmental growth conditions influence the ability of Escherichia coli K1 to invade brain microvascular endothelial cells and confer serum resistance. Infect Immun66:5692–5697
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Badger J. L, Stins M. F, Kim K. S. 1999; Citrobacter freundii invades and replicates in human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Infect Immun67:4208–4215
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Belanger M, Dubreuil D, Harel J, Girard C, Jacques M. 1990; Role of lipopolysaccharides in adherence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to porcine tracheal rings. Infect Immun58:3523–3530
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Choi C, Kwon D, Min K, Chae C. 2001; Detection and localization of ApxI, -II and -III genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in natural porcine pleuropneumonia by in situ hybridization. Vet Pathol38:390–395[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Daines D. A, Cohn L. A, Coleman H. N, Kim K. S, Smith A. L. 2003; Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20 has virulence properties. J Med Microbiol52:277–282[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Del Rio M. L, Gutierrez C. B, Rodriguez Ferri E. F. 2003; Value of indirect hemagglutination and coagglutination tests for serotyping Haemophilus parasuis . J Clin Microbiol41:880–882[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Galdiero M, De Martino L, Pagnini U, Pisciotta M. G, Galdiero E. 2001; Interactions between bovine endothelial cells and Pasteurella multocida : association and invasion. Res Microbiol152:57–65[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Goldstein G. W, Betz A. L. 1986; The blood-brain barrier. Sci Am255:74–83
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gottschalk M, Taylor D. J. 2005; Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In Diseases of Swine Edited by Straw B. E., D'Allaire S., Mengeling W. L., Taylor D. J.. Ames: Iowa State University; (in press)
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Hill C. E, Metcalf D. S, MacInnes J. I. 2003; A search for virulence genes of Haemophilus parasuis using differential display RT-PCR. Vet Microbiol96:189–202[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hippenstiel S, Suttorp N. 2003; Interaction of pathogens with the endothelium. Thromb Haemost89:18–24
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Huang S. H, Jong A. Y. 2001; Cellular mechanisms of microbial proteins contributing to invasion of the blood-brain barrier. Cell Microbiol3:277–287[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Huang S. H, Stins M. F, Kim K. S. 2000; Bacterial penetration across the blood-brain barrier during the development of neonatal meningitis. Microbes Infect2:1237–1244[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jacques M, Belanger M, Roy G, Foiry B. 1991; Adherence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to porcine tracheal epithelial cells and frozen lung sections. Vet Microbiol27:133–143[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kielstein P, Rapp-Gabrielson V. J. 1992; Designation of 15 serovars of Haemophilus parasuis on the basis of immunodiffusion using heat-stable antigen extracts. J Clin Microbiol30:862–865
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kielstein P, Rosner H, Muller W. 1991; Typing of heat-stable soluble Haemophilus parasuis antigen by means of agargel precipitation and the dot-blot procedure. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B38:315–320
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kniesel U, Wolburg H. 2000; Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier. Cell Mol Neurobiol20:57–76[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lichtensteiger C. A, Vimr E. R. 1997; Neuraminidase (sialidase) activity of Haemophilus parasuis . FEMS Microbiol Lett152:269–274[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Moller K, Kilian M. 1990; V factor-dependent members of the family Pasteurellaceae in the porcine upper respiratory tract. J Clin Microbiol28:2711–2716
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Morozumi T, Nicolet J. 1986a; Some antigenic properties of Haemophilus parasuis and a proposal for serological classification. J Clin Microbiol23:1022–1025
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Morozumi T, Nicolet J. 1986b; Morphological variations of Haemophilus parasuis strains. J Clin Microbiol23:138–142
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Munch S, Grund S, Kruger M. 1992; Fimbriae and membranes on Haemophilus parasuis . Zentralbl Veterinarmed B39:59–64
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Oliveira S, Pijoan C. 2004; Haemophilus parasuis : new trends on diagnosis, epidemiology and control. Vet Microbiol99:1–12[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Oliveira S, Batista L, Torremorell M, Pijoan C. 2001; Experimental colonization of piglets and gilts with systemic strains of Haemophilus parasuis and Streptococcus suis to prevent disease. Can J Vet Res65:161–167
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Patrick D, Betts J, Frey E. A, Prameya R, Dorovini-Zis K, Finlay B. B. 1992; Haemophilus influenzae lipopolysaccharide disrupts confluent monolayers of bovine brain endothelial cells via a serum-dependent cytotoxic pathway. J Infect Dis165:865–872[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Rafiee M, Blackall P. J. 2000; Establishment, validation and use of the Kielstein-Rapp-Gabrielson serotyping scheme for Haemophilus parasuis . Aust Vet J78:172–174[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Rapp-Gabrielson V. J, Gabrielson D. A. 1992; Prevalence of Haemophilus parasuis serovars among isolates from swine. Am J Vet Res53:659–664
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Rapp-Gabrielson V. J, Gabrielson D. A, Schamber G. J. 1992; Comparative virulence of Haemophilus parasuis serovars 1 to 7 in guinea pigs. Am J Vet Res53:987–994
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Schaller A, Kuhnert P, Nicolet J, Frey J, de la Puente-Redondo V. A. 2000; Apx toxins in Pasteurellaceae species from animals. Vet Microbiol74:365–376[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Segales J, Domingo M, Balasch M, Solano G. I, Pijoan C. 1998; Ultrastructural study of alveolar macrophages infected in vitro with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus, with and without Haemophilus parasuis . J Comp Pathol118:231–243[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. St Geme J. W., 3rd, Falkow S. 1990; Haemophilus influenzae adheres to and enters cultured human epithelial cells. Infect Immun58:4036–4044
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Tadjine M, Mittal K. R, Bourdon S, Gottschalk M. 2004; Development of a new serological test for serotyping Haemophilus parasuis isolates and determination of their prevalence in North America. J Clin Microbiol42:839–840[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Teifel M, Friedl P. 1996; Establishment of the permanent microvascular endothelial cell line PBMEC/C1-2 from porcine brains. Exp Cell Res228:50–57[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Townsend G. C, Scheld W. M. 1995; In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier to study bacterial meningitis. Trends Microbiol3:441–445[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tunkel A. R, Rosser S. W, Hansen E. J, Scheld W. M. 1991; Blood-brain barrier alterations in bacterial meningitis: development of an in vitro model and observations on the effects of lipopolysaccharide. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 27A113–120
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tuomanen E. 1996; Entry of pathogens into the central nervous system. FEMS Microbiol Rev18:289–299[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Turni C, Blackall P. J. 2005; Comparison of the indirect haemagglutination and gel diffusion test for serotyping Haemophilus parasuis . Vet Microbiol106:145–151[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Vahle J. L, Haynes J. S, Andrews J. J. 1997; Interaction of Haemophilus parasuis with nasal and tracheal mucosa following intranasal inoculation of cesarean derived colostrum deprived (CDCD) swine. Can J Vet Res61:200–206
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Vanier G, Segura M, Friedl P, Lacouture S, Gottschalk M. 2004; Invasion of porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells by Streptococcus suis serotype 2. Infect Immun72:1441–1449[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Virji M, Kayhty H, Ferguson D. J, Alexandrescu C, Moxon E. R. 1991; Interactions of Haemophilus influenzae with cultured human endothelial cells. Microb Pathog10:231–245[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Zucker B. A, Baghian A, Traux R, O'Reilly K. L, Storz J. 1996; Detection of strain-specific antigenic epitopes on the lipo-oligosaccharide of Haemophilus parasuis by use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Am J Vet Res57:63–67
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28312-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28312-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error