1887

Abstract

With the aim of understanding sexual reproduction and phenotypic expression, a novel type of mating recently discovered in was investigated. Termed spontaneous zygogenesis (or Z-mating), it differs from F-mediated conjugation. Its products proved phenotypically unstable, losing part of the phenotype for which they were selected. Inactivation of a parental chromosome in the zygote is strongly suggested by fluctuation tests, respreading experiments, analysis of reisolates, and segregation of non-viable cells detected by epifluorescence staining. Some phenotypically haploid subclones were interpreted as stable noncomplementing diploids carrying an inactivated co-replicating chromosome. Pedigree analysis indicated that the genetic composition of such cells consisted of parental genomes or one parental plus a recombinant genome. Inactivation of a chromosome carrying a prophage resulted in the disappearance of both the ability to produce phage particles and the immunity to superinfection. Phage production signalled transient reactivation of such a chromosome and constituted a sensitive test for stable noncomplementing diploidy. Chromosome inactivation thus appears to be a spontaneous event in bacteria.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28096-0
2005-09-01
2019-11-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/151/9/mic1512947.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28096-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Assaad, F. F., Tucker, K. L. & Signer, E. R. ( 1993; ). Epigenetic repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS) in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 22, 1067–1085.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Boulos, L., Prevost, M., Barbeau, B., Coallier, J. & Desjardins, R. ( 1999; ). LIVE/DEAD BacLightE: application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water. J Microbiol Methods 37, 77–86.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Coetzee, J. N., Sirgel, F. A. & Lecastsas, G. ( 1979; ). Genetic recombination in fused sphaeroplasts of Providence alcalifaciens. J Gen Microbiol 114, 313–322.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Crousi, H. V., Brown, A. & Munford, B. C. ( 1971; ). L-chromosome inheritance and the problem of “imprinting” in Sciara (Sciaridae, Dipteria). Chromosome 34, 324–339.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cupples, C. G., Cabrera, M., Cruz, C. & Miller, J. H. ( 1990; ). A set of lacZ mutations in Escherichia coli that allow rapid detection of specific frameshift mutations. Genetics 125, 275–280.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Drlica, K. & Zhao, X. ( 1997; ). DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61, 377–392.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fleisher, E. R. & Vary, P. S. ( 1985; ). Genetic analysis of fusion recombinants and presence of noncomplementing diploids in Bacillus megaterium. J Gen Microbiol 131, 919–926.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Fodor, K. & Alfoldi, L. ( 1976; ). Fusion of protoplasts of Bacillus megaterium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 73, 2147–2150.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Fürste, J. P., Pansegrau, W., Frank, R., Blocker, H., Scholtz, P., Bagrasarian, M. & Lanka, E. ( 1986; ). Molecular cloning of the plasmid RP4 primase region in a multi-host-range tacp expression vector. Gene 48, 119–131.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Grandjean, V., Hauck, Y., Le Derout, J. & Hirschbein, L. ( 1996a; ). Noncomplementing diploids from Bacillus subtilis protoplast fusion: relationship between maintenance of chromosomal inactivation and segregation capacity. Genetics 144, 871–881.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Grandjean, V., Le Hegarat, F. & Hirschbein, L. ( 1996b; ). Prokaryotic model of epigenetic inactivation: chromosomal silencing in Bacillus subtilis fusion products. In Epigenetic Mechanisms of Gene Regulation, pp. 361–376. Edited by V. Russo, R. A. Martiensen & A. D. Riggs. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
  12. Grandjean, V., Hauck, Y., Beloin, C., Le Hegarat, F. & Hirschbein, L. ( 1998; ). Chromosomal inactivation of Bacillus subtilis exfusants: a prokaryotic model of epigenetic regulation. Biol Chem 379, 553–557.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gratia, J. P. ( 1973; ). Coliphage πγ, a novel type of specialized transducer. Mol Gen Genet 124, 157–166.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gratia, J. P. ( 1989; ). Products of defective lysogeny in Serratia marcescens SMG38 and their activity on Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteria. J Gen Microbiol 135, 23–35.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gratia, J. P. ( 1994; ). Ufr/s variation in Escherichia coli K12: a reversible double-mutation or alternate chromosome expression in non-complementing diploids? Res Microbiol 145, 309–325.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gratia, J. P. & Deschuyteneer, R. ( 1998; ). A sensitive test for detecting and analysing products of “illegtimate mating” in Enterobacteria. Arch Physiol Biochem 106, B11.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gratia, J. P. & Thiry, M. ( 2003; ). Spontaneous zygogenesis in Escherichia coli, a form of true sexuality in prokaryotes. Microbiology 149, 2571–2584.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Guillén, N., Sanchez-Rivas, C. & Hirschbein, L. ( 1983; ). Absence of functional RNA encoded by a silent chromosome from non-complementing diploids in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Gen Genet 191, 81–85.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Guillén, N., Amar, N. & Hirschbein, L. ( 1985; ). Stabilized non-complementing diploids (Ncd) from fused protoplast products of Bacillus subtilis. EMBO J 4, 1333–1338.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hauser, P. & Karamata, D. ( 1992; ). Ploidy of Bacillus subtilis exfusants: the haploid nature of cells forming colonies with biparental or prototrophic phenotypes. J Gen Microbiol 138, 1077–1088.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hayes, W. ( 1968; ). The Genetics of Bacteria and their Viruses, 2nd edn. Blackwell.
  22. Holliday, R. ( 1994; ). Epigenetics: an overview. Dev Genet 15, 453–457.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Hopwood, D. A., Wright, H. M., Bibb, M. J. & Cohen, S. N. ( 1977; ). Genetic recombination through protoplast fusion in Streptomyces. Nature 268, 171–174.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Hotchkiss, R. P. & Gabor, M. H. ( 1980; ). Biparental products of bacterial protoplasts fusion showing unequal chromosome expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77, 3553–3557.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lederberg, J. ( 1949; ). Aberrant heterozygotes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 35, 178–184.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lederberg, J. ( 1954; ). A simple method for isolating individual microbes. J Bacteriol 68, 258.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Le Dérout, J., Thaler, D. S., Guillén, N. & Hirschbein, L. ( 1992; ). The spo0A gene is implicated in the maintenance of non-complementing diploids in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol 6, 1495–1505.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Lee, J. T. & Jaenisch, R. ( 1997; ). The (epi)genetic control of mammalian X-chromosome inactivation. Curr Opin Genet Dev 7, 274–280.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lévi-Meyrueis, C. & Sanchez-Rivas, C. ( 1984; ). Complementation and genetic inactivation: two alternative mechanisms leading to prototrophy in bacterial clones. Mol Gen Genet 196, 488–493.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lyon, M. ( 1993; ). Epigenetic inheritance in mammals. Trends Genet 9, 123–128.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Miller, J. H. ( 1972; ). Experiments in Molecular Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  32. Molecular Probes ( 1995; ). Molecular Probes Live/dead BacLight Bacteria Viability Kit Technical Sheet.
  33. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. ( 1989; ). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  34. Sanchez-Rivas, C. & Lévi-Meyrueis, C. ( 1994; ). Ploidy of Bacillus subtilis exfusants: a controversy. I. The case for diploidy. Microbiology 140, 1–2.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Schaeffer, P., Cami, B. & Hotchkiss, R. D. ( 1976; ). Fusion of bacterial protoplasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 73, 2151–2155.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Thaler, D. S., Roth, J. R. & Hirschbein, L. ( 1990; ). Imprinting as a mechanism for the control of gene expression. In The Bacterial Chromosome, pp. 445–458. Edited by K. Drlica & M. Riley. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
  37. Zelle, M. R. & Lederberg, J. ( 1951; ). Single-cell isolations of diploid heterozygous Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 61, 351–355.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28096-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28096-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error