1887

Abstract

The , and genes encode the core components of the cyanobacterial circadian clock in PCC 7942. Rhythmic expression patterns of and of the operon normally peak in synchrony. In some mutants the relative timing of peaks (phase relationship) between these transcription units is altered, but circadian rhythms persist robustly. In this study, the importance of the transcriptional timing of genes was examined. Expressing either or from a heterologous promoter whose peak expression occurs 12 h out of phase from the norm, and thus 12 h out of phase from the other locus, did not affect the time required for one cycle (period) or phase of the circadian rhythm, as measured by bioluminescence reporters. Furthermore, the data confirm that specific elements within the promoters of the genes are not necessary to sustain clock function.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28030-0
2005-08-01
2019-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/151/8/mic1512605.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28030-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Andersson, C. R., Tsinoremas, N. F., Shelton, J., Lebedeva, N. V., Yarrow, J., Min, H. & Golden, S. S. ( 2000; ). Application of bioluminescence to the study of circadian rhythms in cyanobacteria. Methods Enzymol 305, 527–542.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bustos, S. A. & Golden, S. S. ( 1991; ). Expression of the psbDII gene in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 requires sequences downstream of the transcription start site. J Bacteriol 173, 7525–7533.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Canales, S. R., Ditty, J. L., Clerico, E. M. & Golden, S. S. ( 2005; ). Detection of rhythmic bioluminescence from luciferase reporters in cyanobacteria. In Methods in Molecular Biology. Edited by E. Rosato. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press (in press).
  4. Clerico, E. M., Ditty, J. L. & Golden, S. S. ( 2005; ). Specialized techniques for site-directed mutagenesis in cyanobacteria. In Methods in Molecular Biology. Edited by E. Rosato. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press (in press).
  5. Ditty, J. L., Williams, S. B. & Golden, S. S. ( 2003; ). A cyanobacterial circadian timing mechanism. Annu Rev Genet 37, 513–543.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Dunlap, J. C. ( 1999; ). Molecular bases for circadian clocks. Cell 96, 271–290.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Dunlap, J. C., Loros, J. J. & DeCoursey, P. J. ( 2004; ). Chronobiology: Biological Timekeeping. Sunderland. MA: Sinauer Associates.
  8. Fellay, R., Frey, J. & Krisch, H. ( 1987; ). Interposon mutagenesis of soil and water bacteria: a family of DNA fragments designed for in vitro insertional mutagenesis of gram-negative bacteria. Gene 52, 147–154.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Golden, S. S. ( 1988; ). Mutagenesis of cyanobacteria by classical and gene-transfer-based methods. Methods Enzymol 167, 714–727.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Golden, S. S. & Canales, S. R. ( 2003; ). Cyanobacterial circadian rhythms – timing is everything. Nat Rev Microbiol 1, 191–199.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Golden, S. S., Brusslan, J. & Haselkorn, R. ( 1987; ). Genetic engineering of the cyanobacterial chromosome. Methods Enzymol 153, 215–231.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Harmer, S. L., Panda, S. & Kay, S. A. ( 2001; ). Molecular bases of circadian rhythms. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17, 215–253.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ishiura, M., Kutsuna, S., Aoki, S., Iwasaki, H., Andersson, C. R., Tanabe, A., Golden, S. S., Johnson, C. H. & Kondo, T. ( 1998; ). Expression of a gene cluster kaiABC as a circadian feedback process in cyanobacteria. Science 281, 1519–1523.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Iwasaki, H., Nishiwaki, T., Kitayama, Y., Nakajima, M. & Kondo, T. ( 2002; ). KaiA-stimulated KaiC phosphorylation in circadian timing loops in cyanobacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 15788–15793.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kageyama, H., Kondo, T. & Iwasaki, H. ( 2002; ). Circadian formation of clock protein complexes by KaiA, KaiB, KaiC and SasA in cyanobacteria. J Biol Chem 278, 2388–2395.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Katayama, M., Tsinoremas, N. F., Kondo, T. & Golden, S. S. ( 1999; ). cpmA, a gene involved in an output pathway of the cyanobacterial circadian system. J Bacteriol 181, 3516–3524.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Katayama, M., Kondo, T., Xiong, J. & Golden, S. S. ( 2003; ). ldpA encodes an iron-sulfur protein involved in light-dependent modulation of the circadian period in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. J Bacteriol 185, 1415–1422.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kutsuna, S., Nakahira, Y., Katayama, M., Ishiura, M. & Kondo, T. ( 2005; ). Transcriptional regulation of the circadian clock operon kaiBC by upstream regions in cyanobacteria. Mol Microbiol (in press).
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Liu, Y., Tsinoremas, N. F., Johnson, C. H., Lebedeva, N. V., Golden, S. S., Ishiura, M. & Kondo, T. ( 1995; ). Circadian orchestration of gene expression in cyanobacteria. Genes Dev 9, 1469–1478.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Liu, Y., Tsinoremas, N. F., Golden, S. S., Kondo, T. & Johnson, C. H. ( 1996; ). Circadian expression of genes involved in the purine biosynthetic pathway of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Mol Microbiol 20, 1071–1081.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Michel, K. P., Pistorius, E. K. & Golden, S. S. ( 2001; ). Unusual regulatory elements for iron deficiency induction of the idiA gene of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. J Bacteriol 183, 5015–5024.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Min, H., Liu, Y., Johnson, C. H. & Golden, S. S. ( 2004; ). Phase determination of circadian gene expression in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. J Biol Rhythms 19, 103–112.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Nair, U., Ditty, J. L., Min, H. & Golden, S. S. ( 2002; ). Roles for sigma factors in global circadian regulation of the cyanobacterial genome. J Bacteriol 184, 3530–3538.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nakajima, M., Imai, K., Ito, H., Nishiwaki, T., Murayama, Y., Iwasaki, H., Oyama, T. & Kondo, T. ( 2005; ). Reconstitution of circadian oscillation of cyanobacterial KaiC phosphorylation in vitro. Science 308, 414–415.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Pittendrigh, C. S. ( 1981; ). Circadian systems: general perspective and entrainment. In Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology: Biological Rhythms, pp. 57–80, 95–124. Edited by J. Aschoff. New York: Plenum.
  26. Plautz, J. D., Straume, M., Stanewsky, R., Jamison, C. F., Brandes, C., Dowse, H. B., Hall, J. C. & Kay, S. A. ( 1997; ). Quantitative analysis of Drosophila period gene transcription in living animals. J Biol Rhythms 12, 204–217.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Schmitz, O., Katayama, M., Williams, S. B., Kondo, T. & Golden, S. S. ( 2000; ). CikA, a bacteriophytochrome that resets the cyanobacterial circadian clock. Science 289, 765–768.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tomita, J., Nakajima, M., Kondo, T. & Iwasaki, H. ( 2005; ). No transcription-translation feedback in circadian rhythm of KaiC phosphorylation. Science 307, 251–254.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tsinoremas, N. F., Ishiura, M., Kondo, T., Andersson, C. R., Tanaka, K., Takahashi, H., Johnson, C. H. & Golden, S. S. ( 1996; ). A sigma factor that modifies the circadian expression of a subset of genes in cyanobacteria. EMBO J 15, 2488–2495.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Williams, S. B., Vakonakis, I., Golden, S. S. & LiWang, A. C. ( 2002; ). Structure and function from the circadian clock protein KaiA of Synechococcus elongatus: a potential clock input mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 15357–15362.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Xu, Y., Mori, T. & Johnson, C. H. ( 2000; ). Circadian clock-protein expression in cyanobacteria: rhythms and phase setting. EMBO J 19, 3349–3357.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Xu, Y., Mori, T. & Johnson, C. H. ( 2003; ). Cyanobacterial circadian clockwork: roles of KaiA, KaiB and the kaiBC promoter in regulating KaiC. EMBO J 22, 2117–2126.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Young, M. W. & Kay, S. A. ( 2001; ). Time zones: a comparative genetics of circadian clocks. Nat Rev Genet 2, 702–715.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28030-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.28030-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error