1887

Abstract

Oxidative damage in microbial cells occurs during exposure to the toxic metal chromium, but it is not certain whether such oxidation accounts for the toxicity of Cr. Here, a Δ mutant (defective for the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase) was found to be hypersensitive to Cr(VI) toxicity under aerobic conditions, but this phenotype was suppressed under anaerobic conditions. Studies with cells expressing a Sod1p variant (Sod1) showed that the superoxide dismutase activity rather than the metal-binding function of Sod1p was required for Cr resistance. To help identify the macromolecular target(s) of Cr-dependent oxidative damage, cells deficient for the reduction of phospholipid hydroperoxides (Δ and Δ/Δ/Δ) and for the repair of DNA oxidation (Δ and Δ/Δ) were tested, but were found not to be Cr-sensitive. In contrast, Δ (Δ) and Δ (Δ) mutants defective for peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) activity exhibited a Cr sensitivity phenotype, and cells overexpressing these enzymes were Cr-resistant. Overexpression of MSRs also suppressed the Cr sensitivity of Δ cells. The inference that protein oxidation is a primary mechanism of Cr toxicity was corroborated by an observed ∼20-fold increase in the cellular levels of protein carbonyls within 30 min of Cr exposure. Carbonylation was not distributed evenly among the expressed proteins of the cells; certain glycolytic enzymes and heat-shock proteins were specifically targeted by Cr-dependent oxidative damage. This study establishes an oxidative mode of Cr toxicity in , which primarily involves oxidative damage to cellular proteins.

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2005-06-01
2020-08-08
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