1887

Abstract

Eap and Emp are two adhesins initially described as extracellular matrix binding proteins. Eap has since emerged as being important in adherence to and invasion of eukaryotic cells, as well as being described as an immunomodulator and virulence factor in chronic infections. This paper describes the mapping of the transcription start point of the and promoters. Moreover, using reporter-gene assays and real-time PCR in defined regulatory mutants, environmental conditions and global regulators affecting expression of and were investigated. Marked differences were found in expression of and between strain Newman and the 8325 derivatives SH1000 and 8325-4. Moreover, both genes were repressed in the presence of glucose. Analysis of expression of both genes in various regulatory mutants revealed that and were involved in their regulation, but the data suggested that there were additional regulators of both genes. In a mutant, expression of both genes was severely repressed. expression was also reduced in the presence of glucose, suggesting that repression of and in glucose-containing medium may, in part, be a consequence of a decrease in expression of .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.27902-0
2005-06-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/151/6/mic1511789.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.27902-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arvidson, S. & Tegmark, K. ( 2001; ). Regulation of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Med Microbiol 291, 159–170.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bayer, M. G., Heinrichs, J. H. & Cheung, A. L. ( 1996; ). The molecular architecture of the sar locus in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 178, 4563–4570.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Benton, B. M., Zhang, J. P., Bond, S., Pope, C., Christian, T., Lee, L., Winterberg, K. M., Schmid, M. B. & Buysse, J. M. ( 2004; ). Large-scale identification of genes required for full virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 186, 8478–8489.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bischoff, M., Entenza, J. M. & Giachino, P. ( 2001; ). Influence of a functional sigB operon on the global regulators sar and agr in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 183, 5171–5179.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bischoff, M., Dunman, P., Kormanec, J., Macapagal, D., Murphy, E., Mounts, W., Berger-Bachi, B. & Projan, S. ( 2004; ). Microarray-based analysis of the Staphylococcus aureus σ B regulon. J Bacteriol 186, 4085–4099.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bjerketorp, J., Nilsson, M., Ljungh, A., Flock, J. I., Jacobsson, K. & Frykberg, L. ( 2002; ). A novel von Willebrand factor binding protein expressed by Staphylococcus aureus. Microbiology 148, 2037–2044.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bjerketorp, J., Jacobsson, K. & Frykberg, L. ( 2004; ). The von Willebrand factor-binding protein (vWbp) of Staphylococcus aureus is a coagulase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 234, 309–314.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Blevins, J. S., Gillaspy, A. F., Rechtin, T. M., Hurlburt, B. K. & Smeltzer, M. S. ( 1999; ). The staphylococcal accessory regulator (sar) represses transcription of the Staphylococcus aureus collagen adhesin gene (cna) in an agr-independent manner. Mol Microbiol 33, 317–326.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Blevins, J. S., Beenken, K. E., Elasri, M. O., Hurlburt, B. K. & Smeltzer, M. S. ( 2002; ). Strain-dependent differences in the regulatory roles of sarA and agr in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 70, 470–480.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Boden, M. K. & Flock, J. I. ( 1989; ). Fibrinogen-binding protein/clumping factor from Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 57, 2358–2363.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Boden, M. K. & Flock, J. I. ( 1992; ). Evidence for three different fibrinogen binding proteins with unique properties from Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman. Microb Pathog 12, 289–298.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Chan, P. F. & Foster, S. J. ( 1998; ). The role of environmental factors in the regulation of virulence-determinant expression in Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4. Microbiology 144, 2469–2479.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Chavakis, T., Hussain, M., Kanse, S. M., Peters, G., Bretzel, R. G., Flock, J. I., Herrmann, M. & Preissner, K. T. ( 2002; ). Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein serves as an anti-inflammatory factor by inhibiting the recruitment of host leukocytes. Nat Med 8, 687–693.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Cheung, A. L. & Zhang, G. ( 2002; ). Global regulation of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus by the SarA protein family. Front Biosci 7, 1825–1842.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Cheung, A. L., Koomey, J. M., Butler, C. A., Projan, S. J. & Fischetti, V. A. ( 1992; ). Regulation of exoprotein expression in Staphylococcus aureus by a locus (sar) distinct from agr. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89, 6462–6466.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cheung, A. L., Bayer, M. G. & Heinrichs, J. H. ( 1997; ). sar genetic determinants necessary for transcription of RNAII and RNAIII in the agr locus of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 179, 3963–3971.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cheung, A. L., Projan, S. J. & Gresham, H. ( 2002; ). The genomic aspect of virulence, sepsis, and resistance to killing mechanisms in Staphylococcus aureus. Curr Infect Dis Rep 4, 400–410.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cheung, A. L., Bayer, A. S., Zhang, G., Gresham, H. & Xiong, Y. Q. ( 2004; ). Regulation of virulence determinants in vitro and in vivo in Staphylococcus aureus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 40, 1–9.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Chien, Y. & Cheung, A. L. ( 1998; ). Molecular interactions between two global regulators, sar and agr, in Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem 273, 2645–2652.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Chien, Y., Manna, A. C. & Cheung, A. L. ( 1998; ). SarA level is a determinant of agr activation in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 30, 991–1001.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Clarke, S. R., Wiltshire, M. D. & Foster, S. J. ( 2004; ). IsdA of Staphylococcus aureus is a broad spectrum, iron-regulated adhesin. Mol Microbiol 51, 1509–1519.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Deora, R., Tseng, T. & Misra, T. K. ( 1997; ). Alternative transcription factor σ SB of Staphylococcus aureus: characterization and role in transcription of the global regulatory locus sar. J Bacteriol 179, 6355–6359.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dryla, A., Gelbmann, D., von Gabain, A. & Nagy, E. ( 2003; ). Identification of a novel iron regulated staphylococcal surface protein with haptoglobin–haemoglobin binding activity. Mol Microbiol 49, 37–53.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Dunman, P. M., Murphy, E., Haney, S. & 7 other authors ( 2001; ). Transcription profiling-based identification of Staphylococcus aureus genes regulated by agr and/or sarA loci. J Bacteriol 183, 7341–7353.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gertz, S., Engelmann, S., Schmid, R., Ziebandt, A. K., Tischer, K., Scharf, C., Hacker, J. & Hecker, M. ( 2000; ). Characterization of the σ B regulon in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 182, 6983–6991.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Giachino, P., Engelmann, S. & Bischoff, M. ( 2001; ). σ B activity depends on RsbU in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 183, 1843–1852.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Giraudo, A. T., Raspanti, C. G., Calzolari, A. & Nagel, R. ( 1994; ). Characterization of a Tn551-mutant of Staphylococcus aureus defective in the production of several exoproteins. Can J Microbiol 40, 677–681.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Giraudo, A. T., Cheung, A. L. & Nagel, R. ( 1997; ). The sae locus of Staphylococcus aureus controls exoprotein synthesis at the transcriptional level. Arch Microbiol 168, 53–58.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Giraudo, A. T., Calzolari, A., Cataldi, A. A., Bogni, C. & Nagel, R. ( 1999; ). The sae locus of Staphylococcus aureus encodes a two-component regulatory system. FEMS Microbiol Lett 177, 15–22.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Giraudo, A. T., Mansilla, C., Chan, A., Raspanti, C. & Nagel, R. ( 2003; ). Studies on the expression of regulatory locus sae in Staphylococcus aureus. Curr Microbiol 46, 246–250.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Goerke, C., Fluckiger, U., Steinhuber, A., Zimmerli, W. & Wolz, C. ( 2001; ). Impact of the regulatory loci agr, sarA and sae of Staphylococcus aureus on the induction of α-toxin during device-related infection resolved by direct quantitative transcript analysis. Mol Microbiol 40, 1439–1447.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Goerke, C., Fluckiger, U., Steinhuber, A., Bisanzio, V., Ulrich, M., Bischoff, M., Patti, J. M. & Wolz, C. ( 2005; ). The role of Staphylococcus aureus global regulators sae and σ B in virulence gene expression during device-related infection. Infect Immun (in press).
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Haggar, A., Hussain, M., Lonnies, H., Herrmann, M., Norrby-Teglund, A. & Flock, J. I. ( 2003; ). Extracellular adherence protein from Staphylococcus aureus enhances internalization into eukaryotic cells. Infect Immun 71, 2310–2317.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hartleib, J., Kohler, N., Dickinson, R. B. & 7 other authors ( 2000; ). Protein A is the von Willebrand factor binding protein on Staphylococcus aureus. Blood 96, 2149–2156.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Heilmann, C., Hartleib, J., Hussain, M. & Peters, G. ( 2005; ). The multifunctional Staphylococcus aureus autolysin Aaa mediates adherence to immobilized fibrinogen and fibronectin. Infect Immun (in press).
  36. Heinrichs, J. H., Bayer, M. G. & Cheung, A. L. ( 1996; ). Characterization of the sar locus and its interaction with agr in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 178, 418–423.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Höök, M. & Foster, T. J. ( 2000; ). Staphylococcal surface proteins. In Gram-Positive Pathogens, pp. 386–391. Edited by V. A. Fischetti, R. P. Novick, J. J. Ferretti, D. A. Portnoy & J. I. Rood. Washington, DC: American Society fo Microbiology.
  38. Horsburgh, M. J., Aish, J. L., White, I. J., Shaw, L., Lithgow, J. K. & Foster, S. J. ( 2002; ). σ B modulates virulence determinant expression and stress resistance: characterization of a functional rsbU strain derived from Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4. J Bacteriol 184, 5457–5467.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Hussain, M., Becker, K., von Eiff, C., Peters, G. & Herrmann, M. ( 2001a; ). Analogs of Eap protein are conserved and prevalent in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8, 1271–1276.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Hussain, M., Becker, K., von Eiff, C., Schrenzel, J., Peters, G. & Herrmann, M. ( 2001b; ). Identification and characterization of a novel 38·5-kilodalton cell surface protein of Staphylococcus aureus with extended-spectrum binding activity for extracellular matrix and plasma proteins. J Bacteriol 183, 6778–6786.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Hussain, M., Haggar, A., Heilmann, C., Peters, G., Flock, J. I. & Herrmann, M. ( 2002; ). Insertional inactivation of Eap in Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman confers reduced staphylococcal binding in fibroblasts. Infect Immun 70, 2933–2940.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Jahreis, A., Yousif, Y., Rump, J. A., Drager, R., Vogt, A., Peter, H. H. & Schlesier, M. ( 1995; ). Two novel cationic staphylococcal proteins induce IL-2 secretion, proliferation and immunoglobulin synthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of both healthy controls and patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Clin Exp Immunol 100, 406–411.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Jahreis, A., Beckheinrich, P. & Haustein, U. F. ( 2000; ). Effects of two novel cationic staphylococcal proteins (NP-tase and p70) and enterotoxin B on IgE synthesis and interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma production in patients with atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 142, 680–687.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Janzon, L. & Arvidson, S. ( 1990; ). The role of the delta-lysin gene (hld) in the regulation of virulence genes by the accessory gene regulator (agr) in Staphylococcus aureus. EMBO J 9, 1391–1399.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Janzon, L., Lofdahl, S. & Arvidson, S. ( 1989; ). Identification and nucleotide sequence of the delta-lysin gene, hld, adjacent to the accessory gene regulator (agr) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Gen Genet 219, 480–485.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Ji, G., Beavis, R. C. & Novick, R. P. ( 1995; ). Cell density control of staphylococcal virulence mediated by an octapeptide pheromone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92, 12055–12059.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Jönsson, K., McDevitt, D., McGavin, M. H., Patti, J. M. & Höök, M. ( 1995; ). Staphylococcus aureus expresses a major histocompatibility complex class II analog. J Biol Chem 270, 21457–21460.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Kormanec, J. ( 2001; ). Analyzing the developmental expression of sigma factors with S1-nuclease mapping. In Nuclease Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology, pp. 481–494. Edited by C. H. Chein. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
  49. Kornblum, J., Kreiswirth, B., Projan, S. J., Ross, H. & Novick, R. P. ( 1990; ). agr: a polycistronic locus regulating exoprotein synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus. In Molecular Biology of the Staphylococci, pp. 373–402. Edited by R. P. Novick. New York: VCH.
  50. Kreikemeyer, B., McDevitt, D. & Podbielski, A. ( 2002; ). The role of the Map protein in Staphylococcus aureus matrix protein and eukaryotic cell adherence. Int J Med Microbiol 292, 283–295.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Kreiswirth, B. N., Lofdahl, S., Betley, M. J., O'Reilly, M., Schlievert, P. M., Bergdoll, M. S. & Novick, R. P. ( 1983; ). The toxic shock syndrome exotoxin structural gene is not detectably transmitted by a prophage. Nature 305, 709–712.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Kullik, I. I. & Giachino, P. ( 1997; ). The alternative sigma factor σ B in Staphylococcus aureus: regulation of the sigB operon in response to growth phase and heat shock. Arch Microbiol 167, 151–159.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kuroda, M., Ohta, T., Uchiyama, I. & 34 other authors ( 2001; ). Whole genome sequencing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Lancet 357, 1225–1240.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Lee, L. Y., Miyamoto, Y. J., McIntyre, B. W., Höök, M., McCrea, K. W., McDevitt, D. & Brown, E. L. ( 2002; ). The Staphylococcus aureus Map protein is an immunomodulator that interferes with T cell-mediated responses. J Clin Invest 110, 1461–1471.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Lina, G., Jarraud, S., Ji, G., Greenland, T., Pedraza, A., Etienne, J., Novick, R. P. & Vandenesch, F. ( 1998; ). Transmembrane topology and histidine protein kinase activity of AgrC, the agr signal receptor in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 28, 655–662.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Manna, A. C., Bayer, M. G. & Cheung, A. L. ( 1998; ). Transcriptional analysis of different promoters in the sar locus in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 180, 3828–3836.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Massey, R. C., Kantzanou, M. N., Fowler, T., Day, N. P. J., Schofield, K., Wann, E. R., Berendt, A. R., Höök, M. & Peacock, S. J. ( 2001; ). Fibronectin-binding protein A of Staphylococcus aureus has multiple, substituting, binding regions that mediate adherence to fibronectin and invasion of endothelial cells. Cell Microbiol 3, 839–851.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Maxam, A. M. & Gilbert, W. ( 1980; ). Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol 65, 499–560.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Mazmanian, S. K., Liu, G., Ton-That, H. & Schneewind, O. ( 1999; ). Staphylococcus aureus sortase, an enzyme that anchors surface proteins to the cell wall. Science 285, 760–763.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Mazmanian, S. K., Ton-That, H., Su, K. & Schneewind, O. ( 2002; ). An iron-regulated sortase anchors a class of surface protein during Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 2293–2298.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Miyamoto, Y. J., Wann, E. R., Fowler, T., Duffield, E., Höök, M. & McIntyre, B. W. ( 2001; ). Fibronectin binding protein A of Staphylococcus aureus can mediate human T lymphocyte adhesion and coactivation. J Immunol 166, 5129–5138.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Miyazaki, E., Chen, J. M., Ko, C. & Bishai, W. R. ( 1999; ). The Staphylococcus aureus rsbW (orf159) gene encodes an anti-sigma factor of SigB. J Bacteriol 181, 2846–2851.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Morfeldt, E., Panova-Sapundjieva, I., Gustafsson, B. & Arvidson, S. ( 1996; ). Detection of the response regulator AgrA in the cytosolic fraction of Staphylococcus aureus by monoclonal antibodies. FEMS Microbiol Lett 143, 195–201.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Morrissey, J. A., Cockayne, A., Hammacott, J., Bishop, K., Denman-Johnson, A., Hill, P. J. & Williams, P. ( 2002; ). Conservation, surface exposure, and in vivo expression of the Frp family of iron-regulated cell wall proteins in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 70, 2399–2407.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Navarre, W. W. & Schneewind, O. ( 1999; ). Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria and mechanisms of their targeting to the cell wall envelope. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 63, 174–229.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Novick, R. P. ( 1967; ). Properties of a cryptic high-frequency transducing phage in Staphylococcus aureus. Virology 33, 155–166.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Novick, R. P. ( 1991; ). Genetic systems in staphylococci. Methods Enzymol 204, 587–636.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Novick, R. P. ( 2003; ). Autoinduction and signal transduction in the regulation of staphylococcal virulence. Mol Microbiol 48, 1429–1449.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Novick, R. P. & Jiang, D. ( 2003; ). The staphylococcal saeRS system coordinates environmental signals with agr quorum sensing. Microbiology 149, 2709–2717.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Novick, R. P., Ross, H. F., Projan, S. J., Kornblum, J., Kreiswirth, B. & Moghazeh, S. ( 1993; ). Synthesis of staphylococcal virulence factors is controlled by a regulatory RNA molecule. EMBO J 12, 3967–3975.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Novick, R. P., Projan, S. J., Kornblum, J., Ross, H. F., Ji, G., Kreiswirth, B., Vandenesch, F. & Moghazeh, S. ( 1995; ). The agr P2 operon: an autocatalytic sensory transduction system in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Gen Genet 248, 446–458.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Ohlsen, K., Koller, K. P. & Hacker, J. ( 1997; ). Analysis of expression of the alpha-toxin gene (hla) of Staphylococcus aureus by using a chromosomally encoded hla : : lacZ gene fusion. Infect Immun 65, 3606–3614.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Palma, M. & Cheung, A. L. ( 2001; ). σ B activity in Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by RsbU and an additional factor(s) during bacterial growth. Infect Immun 69, 7858–7865.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Palma, M., Haggar, A. & Flock, J. I. ( 1999; ). Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus is enhanced by an endogenous secreted protein with broad binding specificity. J Bacteriol 181, 2840–2845.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Palma, M., Shannon, O., Quezada, H. C., Berg, A. & Flock, J. I. ( 2001; ). Extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein, Efb, from Staphylococcus aureus blocks platelet aggregation due to its binding to the alpha-chain. J Biol Chem 276, 31691–31697.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Qazi, S. N., Counil, E., Morrissey, J., Rees, C. E., Cockayne, A., Winzer, K., Chan, W. C., Williams, P. & Hill, P. J. ( 2001; ). agr expression precedes escape of internalized Staphylococcus aureus from the host endosome. Infect Immun 69, 7074–7082.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Rampone, H., Martinez, G. L., Giraudo, A. T., Calzolari, A. & Nagel, R. ( 1996; ). In vivo expression of exoprotein synthesis with a sae mutant of Staphylococcus aureus. Can J Vet Res 60, 237–240.
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Regassa, L. B., Novick, R. P. & Betley, M. J. ( 1992; ). Glucose and nonmaintained pH decrease expression of accessory gene regulator (agr) in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 60, 3381–3388.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Rescei, P., Kreiswirth, B., O'Reilly, M., Schlievert, P., Gruss, A. & Novick, R. P. ( 1986; ). Regulation of exoprotein gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus by agr. Mol Gen Genet 202, 58–61.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. ( 1989; ). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  81. Saravia-Otten, P., Muller, H. P. & Arvidson, S. ( 1997; ). Transcription of Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin binding protein genes is negatively regulated by agr and an agr-independent mechanism. J Bacteriol 179, 5259–5263.
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Sinha, B., Francois, P. P., Nusse, O. & 7 other authors ( 1999; ). Fibronectin-binding protein acts as Staphylococcus aureus invasin via fibronectin bridging to integrin alpha5beta1. Cell Microbiol 1, 101–117.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Sobke, A., Chavakis, T., Hussain, M., Augustin, H. G., Preissner, K. T. & Herrmann, M. ( 2004; ). The “Extracellular Adherence Protein (Eap)” of Staphylococcus aureus inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and function by specific interference with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. In 11th International Symposium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections, Charleston, SC, October 24–27 2004, abstract PA-31, p. 194.
  84. Steinhuber, A., Goerke, C., Bayer, M. G., Doring, G. & Wolz, C. ( 2003; ). Molecular architecture of the regulatory locus sae of Staphylococcus aureus and its impact on expression of virulence factors. J Bacteriol 185, 6278–6286.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Taylor, J. M. & Heinrichs, D. E. ( 2002; ). Transferrin binding in Staphylococcus aureus: involvement of a cell wall-anchored protein. Mol Microbiol 43, 1603–1614.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Tung, S., Guss, B., Hellman, U., Persson, L., Rubin, K. & Ryden, C. ( 2000; ). A bone sialoprotein-binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus: a member of the staphylococcal Sdr family. Biochem J 345, 611–619.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Weinrick, B., Dunman, P. M., McAleese, F., Murphy, E., Projan, S. J., Fang, Y. & Novick, R. P. ( 2004; ). Effect of mild acid on gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 186, 8407–8423.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Wiltshire, M. D. & Foster, S. J. ( 2001; ). Identification and analysis of Staphylococcus aureus components expressed by a model system of growth in serum. Infect Immun 69, 5198–5202.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Wolz, C., Pohlmann-Dietze, P., Steinhuber, A., Chien, Y. T., Manna, A., van Wamel, W. & Cheung, A. ( 2000; ). Agr-independent regulation of fibronectin-binding protein(s) by the regulatory locus sar in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 36, 230–243.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Wu, S., de Lencastre, H. & Tomasz, A. ( 1996; ). Sigma-B, a putative operon encoding alternate sigma factor of Staphylococcus aureus RNA polymerase: molecular cloning and DNA sequencing. J Bacteriol 178, 6036–6042.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Zhang, L., Gray, L., Novick, R. P. & Ji, G. ( 2002; ). Transmembrane topology of AgrB, the protein involved in the post-translational modification of AgrD in Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem 277, 34736–34742.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.27902-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.27902-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error