Using an established spotted cDNA microarray platform, the nature of changes in the transcriptional profiles of 2200 unique genes from the chestnut blight fungus in response to the absence of either the G subunit CPG-1 or the G subunit CPGB-1 has been explored. It is reported that 216 transcripts were altered in accumulation in the Δ-1 strain and 163 in the Δ- strain, with a considerable overlap (100 genes) that were changed in both cases. Of note, these commonly altered transcripts were changed in the same direction in every instance, thus suggesting a considerable redundancy in pathway control or extensive crosstalk. To further knowledge of the potential impact on G-protein-signalling of infection by hypovirus CHV1-EP713, the accumulation of CPG-1 and CPGB-1 was also investigated by Western analysis. It was demonstrated that both signalling components were reduced in abundance to approximately 25 % of wild-type levels, while their transcripts were slightly elevated. Comparison of a list of genes with altered expression in the presence of CHV1-EP713 to the data obtained in the absence of either G-protein subunit showed that more than one-half of all the transcripts changed by hypovirus infection were also changed in at least one G-protein mutant strain, with one-third being changed in both. Significantly, 95 % of the co-changed genes were altered in the same direction. These data provide the first evidence for modulation of G protein levels as well as the G-signalling pathways by hypovirus infection, and support the hypothesis that modification of G-protein-signalling via both G and G provides for a significant contribution to hypovirus-mediated phenotype.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Agabian, N., Odds, F. C., Poulain, D., Soll, D. R. & White, T. C.(1994). Pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis. J Med Vet Mycol 32 (Suppl. 1), 229–237.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen, T. & Nuss, D.(2004). Specific and common alterations in host gene transcript accumulation following infection of the chestnut blight fungus by mild and severe hypoviruses. J Virol 78, 4145–4155.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  3. Allen, T. D., Dawe, A. L. & Nuss, D. L.(2003). Use of cDNA microarrays to monitor transcriptional responses of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonetria parasitica to infection by virulence-attenuating hypoviruses. Eukaryot Cell 2, 1253–1265.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  4. Anagnostakis, S. L.(1984). The mycelial biology of Endothia parasitica. I. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genes that determine morphology and virulence. In The Ecology and Physiology of the Fungal Mycelium, pp. 353–366. Edited by D. H. Jennings & A. D. M. Rayner. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. Blaauw, M., Knol, J. C., Kortholt, A., Roelofs, J., Ruchira Postma, M., Visser, A. J. & van Haastert, P. J.(2003). Phosducin-like proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum: implications for the phosducin family of proteins. EMBO J 22, 5047–5057.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  6. Bölker, M.(1998). Sex and crime: heterotrimeric G proteins in fungal mating and pathogenesis. Fungal Genet Biol 25, 143–156.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  7. Chen, B., Gao, S., Choi, G. H. & Nuss, D. L.(1996). Extensive alteration of fungal gene transcript accumulation and elevation of G-protein-regulated cAMP levels by a virulence-attenuating hypovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93, 7996–8000.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  8. Choi, G. H. & Nuss, D. L.(1992). Hypovirulence of chestnut blight fungus conferred by an infectious viral cDNA. Science 257, 800–803.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  9. Choi, G. H., Chen, B. & Nuss, D. L.(1995). Virus-mediated or transgenic suppression of a G-protein alpha subunit and attenuation of fungal virulence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92, 305–309.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  10. Cole, S. W., Galic, Z. & Zack, J. A.(2003). Controlling false-negative errors in microarray differential expression analysis: a PRIM approach. Bioinformatics 19, 1808–1816.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  11. Dawe, A. L. & Nuss, D. L.(2001). Hypoviruses and chestnut blight: exploiting viruses to understand and modulate fungal pathogenesis. Annu Rev Genet 35, 1–29.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  12. Dawe, A. L., McMains, V. C., Panglao, M., Kasahara, S., Chen, B. & Nuss, D. L.(2003). An ordered collection of expressed sequences from Cryphonectria parasitica and evidence of genomic microsynteny with Neurospora crassa and Magnaporthe grisea. Microbiology 149, 2373–2384.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. Durmowicz, M. C. & Maier, R. J.(1997). Roles of HoxX and HoxA in biosynthesis of hydrogenase in Bradyrhizobium japonicum. J Bacteriol 179, 3676–3682. [Google Scholar]
  14. Flanary, P. L., DiBello, P. R., Estrada, P. & Dohlman, H. G.(2000). Functional analysis of Plp1 and Plp2, two homologues of phosducin in yeast. J Biol Chem 275, 18462–18469.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. Gao, S. & Nuss, D. L.(1996). Distinct roles for two G protein alpha subunits in fungal virulence, morphology, and reproduction revealed by targeted gene disruption. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93, 14122–14127.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  16. Gronover, C. S., Kasulke, D., Tudzynski, P. & Tudzynski, B.(2001). The role of G-protein alpha subunits in the infection process of the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact 14, 1293–1302.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  17. Hamm, H. E.(1998). The many faces of G protein signaling. J Biol Chem 273, 669–672.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  18. Heintzen, C., Loros, J. J. & Dunlap, J. C.(2001). The PAS protein VIVID defines a clock-associated feedback loop that represses light input, modulates gating, and regulates clock resetting. Cell 104, 453–464.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  19. Hoegl, L., Ollert, M. & Korting, H. C.(1996). The role of Candida albicans secreted aspartic proteinase in the development of candidoses. J Mol Med 74, 135–142.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. Hube, B., Monod, M., Schofield, D. A., Brown, A. J. & Gow, N. A.(1994). Expression of seven members of the gene family encoding secretory aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans. Mol Microbiol 14, 87–99.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. Jara, P., Gilbert, S., Delmas, P., Guillemot, J. C., Kaghad, M., Ferrara, P. & Loison, G.(1996). Cloning and characterization of the eapB and eapC genes of Cryphonectria parasitica encoding two new acid proteinases, and disruption of eapC. Mol Gen Genet 250, 97–105. [Google Scholar]
  22. Kasahara, S. & Nuss, D. L.(1997). Targeted disruption of a fungal G-protein beta subunit gene results in increased vegetative growth but reduced virulence. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact 10, 984–993.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  23. Kasahara, S., Wang, P. & Nuss, D. L.(2000). Identification of bdm-1, a gene involved in G protein beta-subunit function and alpha-subunit accumulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 412–417.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  24. Lengeler, K. B., Davidson, R. C., D'Souza, C., Harashima, T., Shen, W. C., Wang, P., Pan, X., Waugh, M. & Heitman, J.(2000). Signal transduction cascades regulating fungal development and virulence. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64, 746–785.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  25. Masloff, S., Jacobsen, S., Poggeler, S. & Kuck, U.(2002). Functional analysis of the C6 zinc finger gene pro1 involved in fungal sexual development. Fungal Genet Biol 36, 107–116.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  26. Merkel, H. W.(1906). A deadly fungus on the American chestnut. NY Zool Soc Annu Rep 10, 97–103. [Google Scholar]
  27. Monod, M. & Borg-von, Z. M.(2002). Secreted aspartic proteases as virulence factors of Candida species. Biol Chem 383, 1087–1093. [Google Scholar]
  28. Park, G., Xue, C., Zheng, L., Lam, S. & Xu, J. R.(2002). MST12 regulates infectious growth but not appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact 15, 183–192.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  29. Parsley, T. B., Segers, G. C., Nuss, D. L. & Dawe, A. L.(2003). Analysis of altered G-protein subunit accumulation in Cryphonectria parasitica reveals a third Galpha homologue. Curr Genet 43, 24–33. [Google Scholar]
  30. Razanamparany, V., Jara, P., Legoux, R., Delmas, P., Msayeh, F., Kaghad, M. & Loison, G.(1992). Cloning and mutation of the gene encoding endothiapepsin from Cryphonectria parasitica. Curr Genet 21, 455–461.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  31. Ruchel, R., de Bernardis, F., Ray, T. L., Sullivan, P. A. & Cole, G. T.(1992).Candida acid proteinases. J Med Vet Mycol 30 (Suppl. 1), 123–132. [Google Scholar]
  32. Schwerdtfeger, C. & Linden, H.(2003). VIVID is a flavoprotein and serves as a fungal blue light photoreceptor for photoadaptation. EMBO J 22, 4846–4855.[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...


vol. , part 12, pp. 4033-4043

The following supplementary tables are available in an Acrobat PDF file.

A redundant list of clones that met the criteria for differential expression in the Δ strain when compared to EP155 by microarray.

A redundant list of clones that met the criteria for differential expression in the Δ strain when compared to EP155 by microarray.

A redundant list of clones that met the criteria for differential expression in the EP155/CHV1-EP713 strain when compared to EP155 by microarray.

In each case the AESTclone identification numbers, the -fold change together with notation denoting up or down (dn) regulation in the tested strain, the -value of the best BLASTXresult (from Dawe 2003) and the gi number and description from the NCBI database are listed.


Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error