1887

Abstract

This study describes the genotyping of organisms isolated from three groups of patients that developed diverse forms of infection; the patients were monitored in the same French hospital. Forty archival specimens from 13 adults with pneumonia, eight adults colonized by and 19 immunocompetent infants infected with the fungus contemporaneously with a bronchiolitis episode were analysed retrospectively. Genotyping was performed by analysis of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 regions, and of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus. At the ITS regions, a high diversity of genotypes, identical main genotypes (Ba and Ba) and the occurrence of mixed infections (more than one genotype) were observed in the three patient groups. At the DHPS locus, the results indicated the presence of mutants in the two adult groups, as well as in the infant group. Consequently, at these two independent genomic regions, isolates from patients who developed different forms of infection and who lived in the same geographical region presented common characteristics. These results suggest that patients infected with , whatever the form of infection they present, are part of a common human reservoir for .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26919-0
2004-05-01
2020-01-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/150/5/mic1501173.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26919-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Armbruster C., Hassl A., Kriwanek S.. 1997; Pneumocystis carinii colonization in the absence of immunosuppression. Scand J Infect Dis29:591–593[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beard C. B., Carter J. L., Keely S. P..17 other authors 2000; Genetic variation in Pneumocystis carinii isolates from different geographic regions: implications for transmission. Emerg Infect Dis6:265–272[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Demanche C., Berthelemy M., Petit T., Polack B., Wakefield A. E., Dei-Cas E., Guillot J.. 2001; Phylogeny of Pneumocystis carinii from 18 primate species confirms host specificity and suggests coevolution. J Clin Microbiol39:2126–2133[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Diop Santos L., Lacube P., Latouche S..7 other authors 1999; Contribution of dihydropteroate synthase gene typing for Pneumocystis carinii f.sp.hominis epidemiology. J Eukaryot Microbiol46:133S–134S
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dumoulin A., Mazars E., Seguy N., Gargallo-Viola D., Vargas S., Cailliez J. C., Aliouat E. M., Wakefield A. E., Dei-Cas E.. 2000; Transmission of Pneumocystis carinii disease from immunocompetent contacts of infected hosts to susceptible hosts. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis19:671–678[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Helweg-Larsen J., Tsolaki A. G., Miller R. F., Lundgren B., Wakefield A. E.. 1998; Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: analysis of person-to-person transmission by genotyping. Q J M91:813–820[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Helweg-Larsen J., Lee C. H., Jin S., Hsueh J. Y., Benfield T. L., Hansen J., Lundgren J. D., Lundgren B.. 2001; Clinical correlation of variations in the internal transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes in Pneumocystis carinii f.sp. hominis. AIDS15:451–459[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Huang L., Beard C. B., Creasman J..8 other authors 2000; Sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis and geographic region predict mutations in the Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase gene. J Infect Dis182:1192–1198[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Huang L., Morris A. M., Beard C. B.. 2001; Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase mutations and treatment with sulfa or sulfone regimens: a proposal for standardized definitions for clinical evaluation. J Eukaryot Microbiol Suppl180S–181S
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kasuga T., White T. J., Taylor J. W.. 2002; Estimation of nucleotide substitution rates in Eurotiomycete fungi. Mol Biol Evol19:2318–2324[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kazanjian P., Armstrong W., Hossler P. A., Burman W., Richardson J., Lee C. H., Crane L., Katz J., Meshnick S. R.. 2000; Pneumocystis carinii mutations are associated with duration of sulfa or sulfone prophylaxis exposure in AIDS patients. J Infect Dis182:551–557[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lane B. R., Ast J. C., Hossler P. A., Mindell D. P., Bartlett M. S., Smith J. W., Meshnick S. R.. 1997; Dihydropteroate synthase polymorphisms in Pneumocystis carinii. J Infect Dis175:482–485[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Latouche S., Poirot J. L., Maury E., Bertrand V., Roux P.. 1997; Pneumocystis carinii hominis sequencing to study hypothetical person-to-person transmission. AIDS11:549
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Lee C. H., Helweg-Larsen J., Tang X..13 other authors 1998; Update on Pneumocystis cariniif. sp. hominis typing based on nucleotide sequence variations in internal transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes. J Clin Microbiol36:734–741
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Leigh T. R., Kangro H. O., Gazzard B. G., Jeffries D. J., Collins J. V.. 1993; DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction to detect sub-clinical Pneumocystis carinii colonization in HIV-positive and HIV-negative male homosexuals with and without respiratory symptoms. Respir Med87:525–529[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ma L., Kovacs J. A.. 2001; Genetic analysis of multiple loci suggests that mutations in the Pneumocystis cariniif. sp. hominis dihydropteroate synthase gene arose independently in multiple strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother45:3213–3215[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Ma L., Borio L., Masur H., Kovacs J. A.. 1999; Pneumocystis carinii dihydropteroate synthase but not dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations correlate with prior trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or dapsone use. J Infect Dis180:1969–1978[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Matos O., Lee C. H., Jin S., Li B., Costa M. C., Goncalves L., Antunes F.. 2003; Pneumocystis jiroveci in Portuguese immunocompromised patients: association of specific ITS genotypes with treatment failure, bad clinical outcome and childhood. Infect Genet Evol3:281–285[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Miller R. F., Ambrose H. E., Wakefield A. E.. 2001; Pneumocystis cariniif. sp. hominis DNA in immunocompetent health care workers in contact with patients with P. carinii pneumonia. J Clin Microbiol39:3877–3882[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Miller R. F., Ambrose H. E., Novelli V., Wakefield A. E.. 2002; Probable mother-to-infant transmission of Pneumocystis cariniif. sp. hominis infection. J Clin Microbiol40:1555–1557[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Morris A., Beard C. B., Huang L.. 2002; Update on the epidemiology and transmission of Pneumocystis carinii. Microbes Infect4:95–103[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nevez G., Raccurt C., Vincent P., Jounieaux V., Dei-Cas E.. 1999; Pulmonary colonization with Pneumocystis carinii in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients: assessing risk with blood CD4+ T cell counts. Clin Infect Dis29:1331–1332[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Nevez G., Totet A., Pautard J. C., Raccurt C.. 2001; Pneumocystis carinii detection using nested-PCR in nasopharyngeal aspirates of immunocompetent infants with bronchiolitis. J Eukaryot Microbiol Suppl122S–123S
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Nimri L. F., Moura I. N., Huang L., del Rio C., Rimland D., Duchin J. S., Dotson E. M., Beard C. B.. 2002; Genetic diversity of Pneumocystis cariniif. sp. hominis based on variations in nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers of rRNA genes. J Clin Microbiol40:1146–1151[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Olsson M., Eriksson B. M., Elvin K., Strandberg M., Wahlgren M.. 2001; Genotypes of clustered cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Scand J Infect Dis33:285–289[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sing A., Roggenkamp A., Autenrieth I. B., Heesemann J.. 1999; Pneumocystis carinii carriage in immunocompetent patients with primary pulmonary disorders as detected by single or nested PCR. J Clin Microbiol37:3409–3410
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Soulez B., Palluault F., Cesbron J. Y., Dei-Cas E., Capron A., Camus D.. 1991; Introduction of Pneumocystis carinii in a colony of SCID mice. J Protozool38:123S–125S
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Stringer J. R., Beard C. B., Miller R. F., Wakefield A. E.. 2002; A new name (Pneumocystis jiroveci) for Pneumocystis from humans. Emerg Infect Dis8:891–896[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tsolaki A. G., Miller R. F., Underwood A. P., Banerji S., Wakefield A. E.. 1996; Genetic diversity at the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rRNA operon among isolates of Pneumocystis carinii from AIDS patients with recurrent pneumonia. J Infect Dis174:141–156[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Tsolaki A. G., Beckers P., Wakefield A. E.. 1998; Pre-AIDS era isolates of Pneumocystis cariniif. sp. hominis: high genotype similarity with contemporary isolates. J Clin Microbiol36:90–93
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Tsolaki A. G., Miller R. F., Wakefield A. E.. 1999; Oropharyngeal samples for genotyping and monitoring response to treatment in AIDS patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. J Med Microbiol48:897–905[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Vargas S. L., Hughes W. T., Santolaya M. E., Ulloa A. V., Ponce C. A., Cabrera C. E., Cumsille F., Gigliotti F.. 2001; Search for primary infection by Pneumocystis carinii in a cohort of normal, healthy infants. Clin Infect Dis32:855–861[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Wakefield A. E.. 1996; DNA sequences identical to Pneumocystis cariniif. sp. carinii and Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis in samples of air spora. J Clin Microbiol34:1754–1759
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Wakefield A. E.. 2002; Pneumocystis carinii. Br Med Bull61:175–188[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Wakefield A. E., Pixley F. J., Banerji S., Sinclair K., Miller R. F., Moxon E. R., Hopkin J. M.. 1990; Detection of Pneumocystis carinii with DNA amplification. Lancet336:451–453[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26919-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26919-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error