1887

Abstract

All gene-specific transcriptional activators initiate gene transcriptions by binding to promoter sequences and recruiting general transcription factors including TATA-binding protein (TBP) to upstream of targeted genes. Some of them require multiprotein bridging factors (MBFs); for example, the type 1 MBF (MBF1) which interconnects the gene activator with TBP. In this study, the properties of a previously cloned type 1 multiprotein bridging factor (CpMBF1) and a newly identified TBP (CpTBP1) from the apicomplexan were investigated. Genes encoding both proteins were differentially expressed as determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCRs during the parasite life cycle, but in different patterns. The highest level of expression of was in the well-developed intracellular parasites, whereas that of was found in intact oocysts and late intracellular stages, possibly correlated with the formation of oocysts. Both CpMBF1 and CpTBP1 were expressed as maltose-binding protein fusion proteins. The function of CpTBP1 was confirmed by its ability to bind a biotinylated DNA oligonucleotide containing TATA consensus sequence. The interaction between CpMBF1 and CpTBP1 was also observed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Since little is known about the regulation and control of gene activity in , this study may point to a new direction for the study of gene activation associated with the development of the complex life cycle of this parasite.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26891-0
2004-05-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/150/5/mic1501207.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26891-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abrahamsen, M. S. & Schroeder, A. A. ( 1999; ). Characterization of intracellular Cryptosporidium parvum gene expression. Mol Biochem Parasitol 104, 141–146.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bellorini, M., Moncollin, V., D'Incalci, M., Mongelli, N. & Mantovani, R. ( 1995; ). Distamycin A and tallimustine inhibit TBP binding and basal in vitro transcription. Nucleic Acids Res 23, 1657–1663.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bondareva, A. A. & Schmidt, E. E. ( 2003; ). Early vertebrate evolution of the TATA-binding protein, TBP. Mol Biol Evol 20, 1932–1939.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cang, Y., Auble, D. T. & Prelich, G. ( 1999; ). A new regulatory domain on the TATA-binding protein. EMBO J 18, 6662–6671.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Dragoni, I., Mariotti, M., Consalez, G. G., Soria, M. R. & Maier, J. A. ( 1998; ). EDF-1, a novel gene product down-regulated in human endothelial cell differentiation. J Biol Chem 273, 31119–31124.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Fast, N. M., Logsdon, J. M., Jr & Doolittle, W. F. ( 1999; ). Phylogenetic analysis of the TATA box binding protein (TBP) gene from Nosema locustae: evidence for a microsporidia-fungi relationship and spliceosomal intron loss. Mol Biol Evol 16, 1415–1419.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hijjawi, N. S., Meloni, B. P., Morgan, U. M. & Thompson, R. C. ( 2001; ). Complete development and long-term maintenance of Cryptosporidium parvum human and cattle genotypes in cell culture. Int J Parasitol 31, 1048–1055.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hoshiyama, D., Kuma, K. & Miyata, T. ( 2001; ). Extremely reduced evolutionary rate of TATA-box binding protein in higher vertebrates and its evolutionary implications. Gene 280, 169–173.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kabe, Y., Goto, M., Shima, D., Imai, T., Wada, T., Morohashi, K., Shirakawa, M., Hirose, S. & Handa, H. ( 1999; ). The role of human MBF1 as a transcriptional coactivator. J Biol Chem 274, 34196–34202.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kraemer, S. M., Ranallo, R. T., Ogg, R. C. & Stargell, L. A. ( 2001; ). TFIIA interacts with TFIID via association with TATA-binding protein and TAF40. Mol Cell Biol 21, 1737–1746.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Li, F. Q., Ueda, H. & Hirose, S. ( 1994; ). Mediators of activation of fushi tarazu gene transcription by BmFTZ-F1. Mol Cell Biol 14, 3013–3021.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Liu, Q. X., Jindra, M., Ueda, H., Hiromi, Y. & Hirose, S. ( 2003; ). Drosophila MBF1 is a co-activator for Tracheae Defective and contributes to the formation of tracheal and nervous systems. Development 130, 719–728.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Millership, J. J. & Zhu, G. ( 2002; ). Heterogeneous expression and functional analysis of two distinct replication protein A large subunits from Cryptosporidium parvum. Int J Parasitol 32, 1477–1485.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Okhuysen, P. C. & Chappell, C. L. ( 2002; ). Cryptosporidium virulence determinants – are we there yet? Int J Parasitol 32, 517–525.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ouyang, C., Martinez, M. J., Young, L. S. & Sprague, K. U. ( 2000; ). TATA-binding protein-TATA interaction is a key determinant of differential transcription of silkworm constitutive and silk gland-specific tRNA(Ala) genes. Mol Cell Biol 20, 1329–1343.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Poon, D., Knittle, R. A., Sabelko, K. A., Yamamoto, T., Horikoshi, M., Roeder, R. G. & Weil, P. A. ( 1993; ). Genetic and biochemical analyses of yeast TATA-binding protein mutants. J Biol Chem 268, 5005–5013.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Pugh, B. F. ( 2000; ). Control of gene expression through regulation of the TATA-binding protein. Gene 255, 1–14.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rechkoblit, O., Krzeminsky, J., Amin, S., Jernstrom, B., Louneva, N. & Geacintov, N. E. ( 2001; ). Influence of bulky polynuclear carcinogen lesions in a TATA promoter sequence on TATA binding protein–DNA complex formation. Biochemistry 40, 5622–5632.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Singleton, C. K., Delude, R. L., Ken, R., Manning, S. S. & McPherson, C. E. ( 1991; ). Structure, expression, and regulation of members of the developmentally controlled V and H gene classes from Dictyostelium. Dev Genet 12, 88–97.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Srinivasan, L. & Gopinathan, K. P. ( 2002; ). A novel TATA-box-binding factor from the silk glands of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori. Biochem J 363, 503–513.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Takemaru, K., Li, F. Q., Ueda, H. & Hirose, S. ( 1997; ). Multiprotein bridging factor 1 (MBF1) is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional coactivator that connects a regulatory factor and TATA element-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 7251–7256.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Takemaru, K., Harashima, S., Ueda, H. & Hirose, S. ( 1998; ). Yeast coactivator MBF1 mediates GCN4-dependent transcriptional activation. Mol Cell Biol 18, 4971–4976.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tzipori, S. & Widmer, G. ( 2000; ). The biology of Cryptosporidium. Contrib Microbiol 6, 1–32.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Vasanthi, P., Mishra, A. K. & Bhargava, P. ( 2003; ). Regulation of activity of the yeast TATA-binding protein through intra-molecular interactions. J Biosci 28, 413–421.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Wu, S. Y. & Chiang, C. M. ( 2001; ). TATA-binding protein-associated factors enhance the recruitment of RNA polymerase II by transcriptional activators. J Biol Chem 276, 34235–34243.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Zhu, G. & Keithly, J. S. ( 1997; ). Molecular analysis of a P-type ATPase from Cryptosporidium parvum. Mol Biochem Parasitol 90, 307–316.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Zhu, G., LaGier, M. J., Hirose, S. & Keithly, J. S. ( 2000; ). Cryptosporidium parvum: functional complementation of a parasite transcriptional coactivator CpMBF1 in yeast. Exp Parasitol 96, 195–201.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26891-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26891-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error