1887

Abstract

The plasminogen activator streptokinase has been proposed to be a key component of a complex mechanism that promotes skin invasion by . This study was designed to compare gene message and protein levels in wild-type M1 serotype isolate 1881 and a more invasive variant recovered from the spleen of a lethally infected mouse. M1 isolates selected for invasiveness demonstrated enhanced levels of active plasminogen activator activity in culture. This effect was due to a combination of increased expression of the gene and decreased expression of the gene. The gene product, SpeB, was found to efficiently degrade streptokinase .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26826-0
2004-02-01
2019-10-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/150/2/mic1500365.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26826-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Berge, A., Kihlberg, B. M., Sjoholm, A. G. & Bjorck, L. ( 1997; ). Streptococcal protein H forms soluble complement-activating complexes with IgG, but inhibits complement activation by IgG-coated targets. J Biol Chem 272, 20774–20781.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Boyle, M. D. & Lottenberg, R. ( 1997; ). Plasminogen activation by invasive human pathogens. Thromb Haemost 77, 1–10.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Boyle, M. D., Raeder, R., Flosdorff, A. & Podbielski, A. ( 1998; ). Role of emm and mrp genes in the virulence of group A streptococcal isolate 64/14 in a mouse model of skin infection. J Infect Dis 177, 991–997.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boyle, M. D., Romer, T. G., Meeker, A. K. & Sledjeski, D. D. ( 2001; ). Use of surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization protein chip system to analyze streptococcal exotoxin B activity secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes. J Microbiol Methods 46, 87–97.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Caparon, M. G. & Scott, J. R. ( 1987; ). Identification of a gene that regulates expression of M protein, the major virulence determinant of group A streptococci. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84, 8677–8681.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Chaussee, M. S., Ajdic, D. & Ferretti, J. J. ( 1999; ). The rgg gene of Streptococcus pyogenes NZ131 positively influences extracellular SPE B production. Infect Immun 67, 1715–1722.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chaussee, M. S., Watson, R. O., Smoot, J. C. & Musser, J. M. ( 2001; ). Identification of Rgg-regulated exoproteins of Streptococcus pyogenes. Infect Immun 69, 822–831.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Christner, R., Li, Z., Raeder, R., Podbielski, A. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1997; ). Identification of key gene products required for acquisition of plasmin-like enzymatic activity by group A streptococci. J Infect Dis 175, 1115–1120.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Coleman, J. L. & Benach, J. L. ( 1999; ). Use of the plasminogen activation system by microorganisms. J Lab Clin Med 134, 567–576.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. D’Costa, S. S. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1998; ). Interaction of a group A streptococcus within human plasma results in assembly of a surface plasminogen activator that contributes to occupancy of surface plasmin-binding structures. Microb Pathog 24, 341–349.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. D’Costa, S. S. & Boyle, M. D. ( 2000; ). Interaction of group A streptococci with human plasmin(ogen) under physiological conditions. Methods 21, 165–177.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. D’Costa, S. S., Romer, T. G. & Boyle, M. D. ( 2000; ). Analysis of expression of a cytosolic enzyme on the surface of Streptococcus pyogenes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 278, 826–832.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. DesJardin, L. E., Boyle, M. D. & Lottenberg, R. ( 1989; ). Group A streptococci bind human plasmin but not other structurally related proteins. Thromb Res 55, 187–193.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Federle, M. J., McIver, K. S. & Scott, J. R. ( 1999; ). A response regulator that represses transcription of several virulence operons in the group A streptococcus. J Bacteriol 181, 3649–3657.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ferretti, J. J., McShan, W. M., Ajdic, D. & 20 other authors ( 2001; ). Complete genome sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 4658–4663.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Heath, A., DiRita, V. J., Barg, N. L. & Engleberg, N. C. ( 1999; ). A two-component regulatory system, CsrR-CsrS, represses expression of three Streptococcus pyogenes virulence factors, hyaluronic acid capsule, streptolysin S, and pyrogenic exotoxin B. Infect Immun 67, 5298–5305.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Johnston, K. H. & Zabriskie, J. B. ( 1986; ). Purification and partial characterization of the nephritis strain-associated protein from Streptococcus pyogenes, group A. J Exp Med 163, 697–712.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kreikemeyer, B., Boyle, M. D., Buttaro, B. A., Heinemann, M. & Podbielski, A. ( 2001; ). Group A streptococcal growth phase-associated virulence factor regulation by a novel operon (Fas) with homologies to two-component-type regulators requires a small RNA molecule. Mol Microbiol 39, 392–406.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Lahteenmaki, K., Kuusela, P. & Korhonen, T. K. ( 2001; ). Bacterial plasminogen activators and receptors. FEMS Microbiol Rev 25, 531–552.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Lei, B., Mackie, S., Lukomski, S. & Musser, J. M. ( 2000; ). Identification and immunogenicity of group A Streptococcus culture supernatant proteins. Infect Immun 68, 6807–6818.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Li, Z., Ploplis, V. A., French, E. L. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1999a; ). Interaction between group A streptococci and the plasmin(ogen) system promotes virulence in a mouse skin infection model. J Infect Dis 179, 907–914.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Li, Z., Sledjeski, D. D., Kreikemeyer, B., Podbielski, A. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1999b; ). Identification of pel, a Streptococcus pyogenes locus that affects both surface and secreted proteins. J Bacteriol 181, 6019–6027.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lottenberg, R., Broder, C. C. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1987; ). Identification of a specific receptor for plasmin on a group A streptococcus. Infect Immun 55, 1914–1918.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lottenberg, R., Minning-Wenz, D. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1994; ). Capturing host plasmin(ogen): a common mechanism for invasive pathogens? Trends Microbiol 2, 20–24.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lyon, W. R., Gibson, C. M. & Caparon, M. G. ( 1998; ). A role for trigger factor and an rgg-like regulator in the transcription, secretion and processing of the cysteine proteinase of Streptococcus pyogenes. EMBO J 17, 6263–6275.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lyon, W. R., Madden, J. C., Levin, J. C., Stein, J. L. & Caparon, M. G. ( 2001; ). Mutation of luxS affects growth and virulence factor expression in Streptococcus pyogenes. Mol Microbiol 42, 145–157.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Marcum, J. A. & Kline, D. L. ( 1983; ). Species specificity of streptokinase. Comp Biochem Physiol B 75, 389–394.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. McCoy, H. E., Broder, C. C. & Lottenberg, R. ( 1991; ). Streptokinases produced by pathogenic group C streptococci demonstrate species-specific plasminogen activation. J Infect Dis 164, 515–521.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. McIver, K. S. & Scott, J. R. ( 1997; ). Role of mga in growth phase regulation of virulence genes of the group A streptococcus. J Bacteriol 179, 5178–5187.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nowicki, S. T., Minning-Wenz, D., Johnston, K. H. & Lottenberg, R. ( 1994; ). Characterization of a novel streptokinase produced by Streptococcus equisimilis of non-human origin. Thromb Haemost 72, 595–603.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Pinkney, M., Kapur, V., Smith, J. & 7 other authors ( 1995; ). Different forms of streptolysin O produced by Streptococcus pyogenes and by Escherichia coli expressing recombinant toxin: cleavage by streptococcal cysteine protease. Infect Immun 63, 2776–2779.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Radek, J. T. & Castellino, F. J. ( 1989; ). Conformational properties of streptokinase. J Biol Chem 264, 9915–9922.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Raeder, R. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1993; ). Association between expression of immunoglobulin G-binding proteins by group A streptococci and virulence in a mouse skin infection model. Infect Immun 61, 1378–1384.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Raeder, R. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1995; ). Distinct profiles of immunoglobulin G-binding-protein expression by invasive serotype M1 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2, 478–483.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Raeder, R. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1996; ). Properties of IgG-binding proteins expressed by Streptococcus pyogenes isolates are predictive of invasive potential. J Infect Dis 173, 888–895.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Raeder, R., Woischnik, M., Podbielski, A. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1998; ). A secreted streptococcal cysteine protease can cleave a surface-expressed M1 protein and alter the immunoglobulin binding properties. Res Microbiol 149, 539–548.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Raeder, R., Harokopakis, E., Hollingshead, S. & Boyle, M. D. ( 2000; ). Absence of SpeB production in virulent large capsular forms of group A streptococcal strain 64. Infect Immun 68, 744–751.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Robbins, K. C. & Markus, G. ( 1976; ). The interaction of human plasminogen with streptokinase. In Fibrinolysis, pp. 61–75. Edited by P. J. Gaffney & S. Balkuv-Ulutin. New York: Academic Press.
  39. Saouda, M., Wu, W., Conran, P. & Boyle, M. D. ( 2001; ). Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B enhances tissue damage initiated by other Streptococcus pyogenes products. J Infect Dis 184, 723–731.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Schroeder, B., Boyle, M. D., Sheerin, B. R., Asbury, A. C. & Lottenberg, R. ( 1999; ). Species specificity of plasminogen activation and acquisition of surface-associated proteolytic activity by group C streptococci grown in plasma. Infect Immun 67, 6487–6495.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Sledjeski, D. D., Coco, C., Corriher, C. & Boyle, M. D. ( 2001; ). Isolation of human plasma-inducible, growth phase- and temperature-regulated gene fusions in Streptococcus pyogenes using a Tn917-lacZ transposon. J Microbiol Methods 46, 107–117.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Smith, T. C., Sledjeski, D. D. & Boyle, M. D. ( 2003a; ). Regulation of protein H expression in M1 serotype isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 219, 9–15.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Smith, T. C., Sledjeski, D. D. & Boyle, M. D. ( 2003b; ). Streptococcus pyogenes infection in mouse skin leads to a time-dependent up-regulation of protein H expression. Infect Immun 71, 6079–6082.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Svensson, M. D., Sjobring, U., Luo, F. & Bessen, D. E. ( 2002; ). Roles of the plasminogen activator streptokinase and the plasminogen-associated M protein in an experimental model for streptococcal impetigo. Microbiology 148, 3933–3945.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Talkington, D. F., Schwartz, B., Black, C. M., Todd, J. K., Elliott, J., Breiman, R. F. & Facklam, R. R. ( 1993; ). Association of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes isolates with clinical components of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Infect Immun 61, 3369–3374.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Wang, H., Lottenberg, R. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1994; ). Analysis of plasmin(ogen) acquisition by clinical isolates of group A streptococci incubated in human plasma. J Infect Dis 169, 143–149.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Wang, H., Lottenberg, R. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1995a; ). Analysis of the interaction of group A streptococci with fibrinogen, streptokinase and plasminogen. Microb Pathog 18, 153–166.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wang, H., Lottenberg, R. & Boyle, M. D. ( 1995b; ). A role for fibrinogen in the streptokinase-dependent acquisition of plasmin(ogen) by group A streptococci. J Infect Dis 171, 85–92.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Wohl, R. C., Sinio, L., Summaria, L. & Robbins, K. C. ( 1983; ). Comparative activation kinetics of mammalian plasminogens. Biochim Biophys Acta 745, 20–31.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26826-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26826-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error