1887

Abstract

Diversity studies of enteric have relied almost entirely on faecal isolations on the assumption that they are representative of flora found throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The authors have addressed this belief by analysing isolates obtained from the duodenum, ileum, colon and faeces of pigs. isolates were obtained from eight pigs and characterized using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis and PCR-based screening for a range of factors thought to be associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal disease. There are four main genetic groups of commensal (A, B1, B2, D). Group A strains represented 76 % of the isolates from the duodenum, ileum and colon compared to 58 % of the strains isolated from faeces. A nested molecular analysis of variance based on the allozyme and virulence factor screening results showed that differences among individual pigs accounted for 6 % of the observed genetic diversity, whilst 27 % of the genetic variation could be explained by clonal composition differences among gut regions. Finally, the absence of virulence genes in these commensals indicates that they may be suitable as a probiotic consortium, particularly if they also display increased adherence to enterocytes and antagonistic activity against pathogenic strains of .

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26733-0
2004-06-01
2020-04-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/150/6/mic1501735.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26733-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ballyk M., Smith H.. 1999; A model of microbiological growth in a plug flow reactor with wall attachment. Math Biosci158:95–126[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bettelheim K. A., Goldwater P. N., Evangelidis H., Pearce J. L., Smith D. L.. 1992; Distribution of toxigenic Escherichia coli serotypes in the intestines of infants. Comp Immun Microbiol Infect Dis15:65–70[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chin J. C.. 2003; Revisiting the “hygiene hypothesis” in gastrointestinal allergy. Curr Opin Gastroenterol18:705–710
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chin J. C., Mullbacher A.. 2003; Immune activation versus hyporesponsiveness and tolerance in the gut. In Gut Flora, Nutrition, Immunity and Health pp.178–195 Edited by Fuller R., Perdigon G.. Oxford: Blackwell;
  5. Chivers D. J., Langer P.. 1994; The Digestive Systems in Mammals: Food, Form and Function Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press;
  6. Clermont O., Bonacorsi S., Bingen E.. 2000; Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group. Appl Environ Microbiol66:4555–4558[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Duriez P., Clermont O., Bonacorsi S., Bingen E., Chaventre A., Elion J., Picard B., Denamur E.. 2001; Commensal Escherichia coli isolates are phylogenetically distributed among geographically distinct human populations. Microbiology147:1671–1676
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ewing W. N., Cole D. J. A.. 1994; The gastrointestinal tract. In The Living Gut – an Introduction to Micro-Organisms in Nutrition pp.10–28 Edited by Ewing W., Cole D.. Nottingham, UK: Context Publication;
  9. Excoffier L., Smouse P. E., Quattro J. M.. 1992; Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics131:479–491
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Falk P. G., Hooper L. V., Midtvedt T., Gordon J. I.. 1998; Creating and maintaining the gastrointestinal ecosystem: what we know and need to know from gnotobiology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev62:1157–1170
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gismondo M. R., Drago L., Lombardi A.. 1999; Review of probiotics available to modify gastrointestinal flora. Int J Antimicrob Agents12:287–292[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Gordon D. M.. 1997; The genetic structure of Escherichia coli populations in feral house mice. Microbiology143:2039–2046[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Gordon D. M.. 2001; Geographical structure and host specificity in bacteria and the implications for tracing the source of coliform contamination. Microbiology147:1079–1085
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gordon D. M., Cowling A.. 2003; The distribution and genetic structure of Escherichia coli in Australian vertebrates: host and geographic effects. Microbiology149:3575–3586[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Gordon D. M., Lee J.. 1999; The genetic structure of enteric bacteria from Australian mammals. Microbiology145:2673–2682
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gordon D. M., Bauer S., Johnson J. R.. 2002; The genetic structure of Escherichia coli populations in primary and secondary habitats. Microbiology148:1513–1522
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Grauke L. J., Kudva I. T., Yoon J. W., Hunt C. W., Williams C. J., Hovde C. J.. 2002; Gastrointestinal tract location of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 in ruminants. Appl Environ Microbiol68:2269–2277[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hartl D. L., Dykhuizen D. E.. 1984; The population genetics of Escherichia coli. Annu Rev Genet18:31–68[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Herzer P. J., Inouye S., Inouye M., Whittam T. S.. 1990; Phylogenetic distribution of branched RNA-linked multicopy single-stranded DNA among natural isolates of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol172:6175–6181
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hohwy J., Reinholdt J., Mogens K.. 2001; Population dynamics of Streptococcus mitis in its natural habitat. Infect Immun69:6055–6063[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Johnson J. R., Stell A. L.. 2000; Extended virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli strains from patients with urosepsis in relation to phylogeny and host compromise. J Infect Dis181:261–272[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Kailasapathy K., Chin J. C.. 2000; Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotics organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. Immunol Cell Biol78:80–88[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Law D.. 2000; Virulence factors of Escherichia coli O157 and other shiga toxin-producingE. coli. J Appl Microbiol88:729–745[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Ochman H., Selander R. K.. 1984; Standard reference strains of Escherichia coli from natural populations. J Bacteriol157:690–692
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Ørskov F., Ørskov I.. 1992; Escherichia coli serotyping and disease in man and animals. Can J Microbiol38:699–704[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Osek J.. 1999; Prevalence of virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy piglets after weaning. Vet Microbiol68:209–217[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ouwehand A. C., Kirjavainen P. V., Gronlund M. M., Isolauri E., Salminen S. J.. 1999; Adhesion of probiotic micro-organisms to intestinal mucus. Int Dairy J9:623–630[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Paton A. W., Paton J. C.. 1998; Detection and characterization of shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by using multiplex PCR assays forstx1,stx2, eaeA, enterohemorrhagic E. coli hlyA, rfbO111 and rfbO157. J Clin Microbiol36:598–602
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Pupo G. M., Lan R., Reeves R., Baverstock P. R.. 2000; Population genetics of Escherichia coli in a natural population of native Australian rats. Environ Microbiol2:594–610[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Selander R. K., Caugant D. A., Whittam T. S.. 1987; Genetic structure and variation in natural populations of Escherichia coli. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium: Cellular and Molecular Biology pp1625–1648 Edited by Neidhardt F. C.. and others Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Todoriki K., Mukai T., Sato S., Toba T.. 2001; Inhibition of adhesion of food-borne pathogens to Caco-2 cells by Lactobacillus strains. J Appl Microbiol91:154–159[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Whittam T. S.. 1998; Evolution of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. In Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and Other Shiga-Toxin-Producing E. coli Strains pp.195–209 Edited by Kaper J. B., O'Brien A. D.. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology;
  33. Whittam T. S., Ochman H., Selander R. K.. 1983; Geographical components of linkage disequilibrium in natural populations of Escherichia coli. Mol Biol Evol1:67–83
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Wright S.. 1943; Isolation by distance. Genetics28:114–138
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Wu X.-Y., Chapman T., Gordon D., Thuy D. N., Driesen S., Walker M., Chin J.. 2003; Molecular virulence gene typing of clinical E. coli isolates from pigs with post weaning diarrhoea. In Manipulating Pig Production, Proceedings of the Ninth Biennual Conference of the Australasian Pig Science Association p59 Edited by Paterson J. E.. Werribee, Victoria: Australasian Pig Science Association (APSA);
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26733-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26733-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error