1887

Abstract

Members of the mushroom genus form a heterogeneous group of edible species of high commercial importance. Subgenus includes taxa that produce synnematoid fructifications (anamorphic state). Several species, subspecies and varieties have been described in . These taxa are discriminated by minute morphological differences and correspond to . A worldwide geographical sampling of taxa and nucleotide sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear rRNA genes (ITS) were used to produce a molecular phylogeny for the group. Also conducted were new interfertility studies, and a summary of the mating data currently available in the literature is provided. Both ITS phylogeny and mating data supported the distinction between (a species apparently endemic to New Zealand and Australia) and . Within , ITS phylogeny showed a deep split between Old and New World isolates and clearly distinguished four distinct clades that strongly corresponded to the geographical origin of the strains. In the Old World, one clade is composed of isolates from Europe and Africa, and one clade is composed of isolates from Asia (including collections from Hawaii). In the New World, one clade is restricted to isolates from Mexico, and one clade includes all the authors' North America isolates, one collection from Japan and one collection from South Africa. Mating data revealed a high level of interfertility among strains of , except that isolates from Mexico were nearly fully intersterile with the other collections. Nucleotide sequence divergence in the ITS1–5·8S rDNA–ITS2 regions among intercompatible collections was very high (0–6·9 %) in comparison to that reported in other biological species of basidiomycetes (0–3 %), indicating significant genetic divergence between geographically isolated populations of the group. The phylogenetic species concept, as well as molecular, mating and geographical evidence, was used to recognize five species in the subgenus : (in New Zealand and Australia), (in Asia and Hawaii), (in Africa and Europe), (in Mexico) and (in North America). However, geographical boundaries between these species are not strict, as rare events of long distance dispersal have occurred.

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2004-03-01
2020-07-04
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