1887

Abstract

is a two-component signal transduction system in that regulates the expression of many virulence factors at the transcriptional level and appears to act synergistically with in some cases. In this study, the interactions between and have been characterized in some detail. It was found that the locus is larger and more complex than originally envisioned, in that it is expressed from several promoters, giving rise to four or five transcripts, at least three of which are initiated upstream of and contain two additional reading frames, here designated and , which are likely to have important roles in function. The upstream transcripts are induced during exponential phase concomitantly with the onset of RNAIII synthesis and their induction requires the effector, RNAIII, but is blocked by several environmental signals that override the effects of RNAIII. is also required for the induction of these transcripts, so that the locus contains an autoinduction circuit. It is suggested that is downstream of in the exoprotein activation pathway (and also epistatic with ), that it coordinates the effects of environmental signals with the quorum-sensing system, and therefore that it is a key intermediary in the overall regulatory strategy by which senses and responds to its environment.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26575-0
2003-10-01
2019-08-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/149/10/mic1492709.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26575-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Arvidson, S. & Tegmark, K. ( 2001; ). Regulation of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Med Microbiol 291, 159–170.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chan, P. F. & Foster, S. J. ( 1998a; ). The role of environmental factors in the regulation of virulence-determinant expression in Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4. Microbiology 144, 2469–2479.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chan, P. F. & Foster, S. J. ( 1998b; ). Role of SarA in virulence determinant production and environmental signal transduction in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 180, 6232–6241.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chan, P. F., Foster, S. J., Ingham, E. & Clements, M. O. ( 1998; ). The Staphylococcus aureus alternative sigma factor σ B controls the environmental stress response but not starvation survival or pathogenicity in a mouse abscess model. J Bacteriol 180, 6082–6089.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cheung, A. L. & Zhang, G. ( 2002; ). Global regulation of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus by the SarA protein family. Front Biosci 7, d1825–1842.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Cheung, A. L., Coomey, J. M., Butler, C. A., Projan, S. J. & Fischetti, V. A. ( 1992; ). Regulation of exoprotein expression in Staphylococcus aureus by a locus (sar) distinct from agr. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89, 6462–6466.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cheung, A. L., Chien, Y.-T. & Bayer, A. S. ( 1999; ). Hyperproduction of alpha-hemolysin in a sigB mutant is associated with elevated SarA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 67, 1331–1337.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Coleman, G. ( 1983; ). The effect of glucose on the differential rates of extracellular protein and α-toxin formation by Staphylococcus aureus (Wood 46). Arch Microbiol 134, 208–211.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Garvis, S., Mei, J. M., Ruiz-Albert, J. & Holden, D. W. ( 2002; ). Staphylococcus aureus svrA: a gene required for virulence and expression of the agr locus. Microbiology 148, 3235–3243.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Giraudo, A. T., Raspanti, C. G., Calzolari, A. & Nagel, R. ( 1994; ). Characterization of a Tn551-mutant of Staphylococcus aureus defective in the production of several exoproteins. Can J Microbiol 40, 677–681.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Giraudo, A. T., Rampone, H., Calzolari, A. & Nagel, R. ( 1996; ). Phenotypic characterization and virulence of a saeagr− mutant of Staphylococcus aureus. Can J Microbiol 42, 120–123.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Giraudo, A. T., Cheung, A. L. & Nagel, R. ( 1997; ). The sae locus of Staphylococcus aureus controls exoprotein synthesis at the transcriptional level. Arch Microbiol 168, 53–58.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Giraudo, A. T., Calzolari, A., Cataldi, A. A., Bogni, C. & Nagel, R. ( 1999; ). The sae locus of Staphylococcus aureus encodes a two-component regulatory system. FEMS Microbiol Lett 177, 15–22.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Giraudo, A. T., Mansilla, C., Chan, A., Raspanti, C. & Nagel, R. ( 2003; ). Studies on the expression of regulatory locus sae in Staphylococcus aureus. Curr Microbiol 46, 246–250.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hallis, B. A., Thurston, C. F. & Mason, J. R. ( 1991; ). Glucose control of staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis and location is mediated by cyclic AMP. FEMS Microbiol Lett 64, 247–251.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Herbert, S., Barry, P. & Novick, R. P. ( 2001; ). Subinhibitory clindamycin differentially inhibits transcription of exoprotein genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 69, 2996–3003.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Iandolo, J. J. & Shafer, W. M. ( 1977; ). Regulation of staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Infect Immun 16, 610–616.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kornblum, J. S., Projan, S. J., Moghazeh, S. L. & Novick, R. P. ( 1988; ). A rapid method to quantitate non-labeled RNA species in bacterial cells. Gene 63, 75–85.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kullik, I., Giachino, P. & Fuchs, T. ( 1998; ). Deletion of the alternative sigma factor σ B in Staphylococcus aureus reveals its function as a global regulator of virulence genes. J Bacteriol 180, 4814–4820.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Laemmli, U. K. ( 1970; ). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680–685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lindsay, J. A. & Foster, S. J. ( 1999; ). Interactive regulatory pathways control virulence determinant production and stability in response to environmental conditions in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Gen Genet 262, 323–331.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nicholas, R. O., Li, T., McDevitt, D., Marra, A., Sucoloski, S., Demarsh, P. L. & Gentry, D. R. ( 1999; ). Isolation and characterization of a sigB deletion mutant of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 67, 3667–3669.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Novick, R. P. ( 1991; ). Genetic systems in staphylococci. Methods Enzymol 204, 587–636.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Novick, R. P. ( 2003; ). Autoinduction and signal transduction in the regulation of staphylococcal virulence. Mol Microbiol 48, 1429–1449.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Novick, R. P. & Richmond, M. H. ( 1965; ). Nature and interactions of the genetic elements governing penicillinase synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 90, 467–480.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Novick, R. P., Ross, H. F., Projan, S. J., Kornblum, J., Kreiswirth, B. & Moghazeh, S. ( 1993; ). Synthesis of staphylococcal virulence factors is controlled by a regulatory RNA molecule. EMBO J 12, 3967–3975.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ross, H. F. & Novick, R. P. ( 2001; ). sae is a key intermediary in the activation by agr of the staphylococcal virulon. In Cell–Cell Communication. Edited by S. Winans & B. Bassler. Snowbird, UT: American Society for Microbiology.
  28. Vandenesch, F., Kornblum, J. & Novick, R. P. ( 1991; ). A temporal signal, independent of agr, is required for hla but not for spa transcription in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 173, 6313–6320.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Vojtov, N., Ross, H. F. & Novick, R. P. ( 2002; ). Global repression of exotoxin synthesis by staphylococcal superantigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 10102–10107.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Vuong, C., Gotz, F. & Otto, M. ( 2000; ). Construction and characterization of an agr deletion mutant of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Infect Immun 68, 1048–1053.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Yarwood, J. M., McCormick, J. K. & Schlievert, P. M. ( 2001; ). Identification of a novel two-component regulatory system that acts in global regulation of virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 183, 1113–1123.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26575-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26575-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error