1887

Abstract

mutants were unaffected in Fe-dependent regulation of several operons that specify different Fe uptake systems, yet cloned partially corrected an mutant and Fur protein bound to canonical boxes. The lack of a phenotype in mutants is not due to functional redundancy with Irr, another member of the Fur superfamily found in the rhizobia, since double mutants are also unaffected in Fe-responsive regulation of several operons involved in Fe uptake. Neither Irr nor Fur is needed for symbiotic N fixation on peas. As in , mutants accumulated protoporphyrin IX. is not regulated by Fur and its Irr protein lacks the motif needed for haem-dependent post-translational modification that occurs in Irr. The similarities and differences in the Fur superfamily in the rhizobia and other Gram-negative bacteria are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26130-0
2003-05-01
2020-08-10
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/149/5/mic1491357.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26130-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Allaway D., Schofield N. A., Leonard M. E., Gilardoni L., Finan T. M., Poole P. S.. 2001; Use of differential fluorescence induction and optical trapping to isolate environmentally induced genes. Environ Microbiol3:397–406
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Angerer A., Klupp B., Braun V.. 1992; Iron transport systems of Serratia marcescens . J Bacteriol174:1378–1387
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beringer J. E.. 1974; R factor transfer in Rhizobium leguminosarum . J Gen Microbiol84:188–198
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beynon J. L., Beringer J. E., Johnston A. W. B.. 1980; Plasmids and host-range in Rhizobium leguminosarum and Rhizobium phaseoli . J Gen Microbiol120:421–429
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Boyd J., Oza M. N., Murphy J. R.. 1990; Molecular cloning and DNA-sequence analysis of a diphtheria tox iron-dependent regulatory element ( dtxR ) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A87:5968–5972
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bsat N., Herbig A., Casillas-Martinez L., Setlow P., Helmann J. D.. 1998; Bacillus subtilis contains multiple Fur homologues: identification of the iron uptake (Fur) and peroxide regulon (PerR) repressors. Mol Microbiol29:189–198
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Carter R. A., Worsley P. S., Sawers G.. 7 other authors 2002; The vbs genes that direct synthesis of the siderophore vicibactin in Rhizobium leguminosarum : their expression in other genera requires ECF σ factor RpoI. Mol Microbiol44:1153–1166
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Crosa J. H.. 1997; Signal transduction and transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of iron-regulated genes in bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev61:319–336
    [Google Scholar]
  9. de Luca N. G., Wexler M., Pereira M. J., Yeoman K. H., Johnston A. W. B.. 1998; Is the fur gene of Rhizobium leguminosarum essential?. FEMS Microbiol Lett168:289–295
    [Google Scholar]
  10. de Peredo A. G., Saint-Pierre C., Latour J. M., Michaud-Soret I., Forest E.. 2001; Conformational changes of the ferric uptake regulation protein upon metal activation and DNA binding; first evidence of structural homologies with the diphtheria toxin repressor. J Mol Biol310:83–91
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dilworth M. J., Carson K. C., Giles R. G. F., Byrne L. T., Glenn A. R.. 1998; Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae produces a novel cyclic trihydroxamate siderophore, vicibactin. Microbiology144:781–791
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Escolar L., Perez-Martin J., de Lorenzo V.. 1999; Opening the iron box: transcriptional metalloregulation by the Fur protein. J Bacteriol181:6223–6229
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Friedman A. M., Long S. R., Brown S. E., Buikema W. J., Ausubel F. M.. 1982; Construction of a broad host range cosmid cloning vector and its use in the genetic analysis of Rhizobium mutants. Gene18:289–296
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hamza I., Chauhan S., Hassett R., O'Brian M. R.. 1998; The bacterial Irr protein is required for coordination of heme biosynthesis with iron availability. J Biol Chem273:21669–21674
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hamza I., Hassett R., O'Brian M. R.. 1999; Identification of a functional fur gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum . J Bacteriol181:5843–5846
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hamza I., Qi Z., King N. D., O'Brian M. R.. 2000; Fur-independent regulation of iron metabolism by Irr in Bradyrhizobium japonicum . Microbiology146:669–676
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hanahan D.. 1983; Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids. J Mol Biol166:557–580
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hantke K.. 1981; Regulation of ferric iron transport in Escherichia coli K12: isolation of a constitutive mutant. Mol Gen Genet182:288–292
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hantke K.. 1987; Selection procedure for deregulated iron transport mutants ( fur ) in Escherichia coli K12: fur not only affects iron metabolism. Mol Gen Genet210:135–139
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hantke K.. 2001a; Iron and metal regulation in bacteria. Curr Opin Microbiol4:172–177
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hantke K.. 2001b; Bacterial zinc transporters and regulators. Biometals14:239–249
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hirsch P. R., Beringer J. E.. 1984; A physical map of pPH1JI and pJB4JI. Plasmid12:139–141
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Johnston A. W. B., Yeoman K. H., Wexler M.. 2001; Metals and the rhizobial-legume symbiosis – uptake, utilization and signalling. Adv Microb Physiol45:113–156
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kolade O. O., Bellini P., Wexler M., Johnston A. W. B., Grossmann J. G., Hemmings A. M.. 2002; Structural studies of the Fur protein from Rhizobium leguminosarum . Biochem Soc Trans30:771–774
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Masse E., Gottesman S.. 2002; A small RNA regulates the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism in Escherichia coli . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A99:4520–4625
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Messing J., Crea R., Seeburg P. H.. 1983; A system for shotgun DNA sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res9:309–314
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Miller J. H.. 1972; Experiments in Molecular Genetics Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Nienaber A., Hennecke H., Fischer H.-M.. 2001; Discovery of a haem uptake system in the soil bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum . Mol Microbiol41:787–800
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ochsner U. A., Vasil A. I., Vasil M. L.. 1995; Role of the ferric uptake regulator of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the regulation of siderophores and exotoxin A expression: purification and activity on iron-regulated promoters. J Bacteriol177:7194–7201
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ochsner U. A., Johnson Z., Vasil M. L.. 2000; Genetics and regulation of two distinct haem-uptake systems, phu and has , in Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Microbiology146:185–198
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Qi Z., O'Brian M. R.. 2002; Interaction between the bacterial iron response regulator and ferrochelatase mediates genetic control of heme biosynthesis. Mol Cell9:155–162
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Qi Z., Hamza I., O'Brian M. R.. 1999; Heme is an effector molecule for iron-dependent degradation of the bacterial iron response regulator (Irr) protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A96:13056–13061
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Sawers G., Böck A.. 1989; Novel transcriptional control of the pyruvate formate-lyase gene: upstream regulatory sequences and multiple promoters regulate anaerobic expression. J Bacteriol171:2485–2498
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Spaink H. P., Okker R. J. H., Wijffelman C. A., Pees E., Lugtenberg B. J. J.. 1987; Promoters in the nodulation region of the Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiotic plasmid pRL1JI. Plant Mol Biol9:27–39
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Stevens J. B., Carter R. A., Hussain H., Carson K. C., Dilworth M. J., Johnston A. W. B.. 1999; The fhu genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum , specifying siderophore uptake proteins: fhuDCB are adjacent to a pseudogene version of fhuA . Microbiology145:593–601
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Todd J. D., Wexler M., Sawers G., Yeoman K. H., Poole P. S., Johnston A. W. B.. 2002; RirA, an iron-responsive regulator in the symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum . Microbiology148:4059–4071
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Wexler M., Yeoman K. H., Stevens J. B., de Luca N. G., Sawers G., Johnston A. W. B.. 2001; The Rhizobium leguminosarum tonB gene is required for the uptake of siderophore and haem as sources of iron. Mol Microbiol41:801–816
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Wood W. B.. 1966; Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli ; bacterial mutations affecting the restriction and modification of DNA. Mol Biol16:118–133
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Yeoman K. H., Delgado M.-J., Wexler M., Downie J. A., Johnston A. W. B.. 1997; High affinity iron acquisition in Rhizobium leguminosarum requires the cycHJKL operon and the feuPQ gene products, which belong to the family of two-component transcriptional regulators. Microbiology143:127–134
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Yeoman K. H., May A. G., de Luca N. G., Stuckey D. B., Johnston A. W. B.. 1999; A putative ECF sigma factor gene, rpoI , regulates siderophore production in Rhizobium leguminosarum . Mol Plant–Microbe Interact12:994–999
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Yeoman K. H., Wisniewski-Dye F., Timony C., Stevens J. B., de Luca N. G., Downie J. A., Johnston A. W. B.. 2000; Analysis of the Rhizobium leguminosarum siderophore-uptake gene fhuA : differential expression in free-living bacteria and nitrogen-fixing bacteroids and distribution of an fhuA pseudogene in different strains. Microbiology146:829–837
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26130-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.26130-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error