1887

Abstract

is the fourth most common organism responsible for bloodstream infections in many intensive care units, with being the most predominant species isolated in such cases. It has previously been shown that candidal phospholipase B, encoded by the gene, is an important virulence factor for pathogenesis. In this study, the effects of environmental factors (carbohydrate source and pH) and physiological conditions (serum, phospholipids and temperature) on the expression of by cells grown in rich [Sabouraud dextrose broth (SB) or yeast extract/peptone/dextrose] or chemically defined [Lee's, RPMI-1640 or yeast nitrogen base (YNB)] media were investigated. Northern blot analyses revealed that mRNA was expressed in cells grown in rich media at 30 °C but not at 37 °C. However, the protein Plb1p was detected in fungal cells growing at 37 °C in SB, as determined by Western blot analysis, indicating that although the mRNA for this gene was not detected, the actual gene product was present at this temperature. Expression of was detected in cells grown in YNB/glucose at 30 °C but not at 37 °C. However, growth of in YNB/glucose supplemented with serum and phospholipids resulted in expression of at 37 °C also. Additionally, acidic pH induced higher levels of mRNA expression compared to neutral pH, while the morphological form of did not have any influence on the expression of this gene. The studies described here show that the expression of is regulated by nutritional supplementation, environmental factors and the growth phase of the cells, as well as by physiological conditions. The differential expression of in response to environmental factors may be correlated to host-specific components available to during infection.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.25829-0
2003-01-01
2019-11-11
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/149/1/mic149_26.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.25829-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Asleson, C. M., Bensen, E. S., Gale, C. A., Melms, A. S., Kurischko, C. & Berman, J. ( 2001; ). Candida albicans INT1-induced filamentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on Sla2p. Mol Cell Biol 21, 1272–1284.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bahn, Y. S. & Sundstrom, P. ( 2001; ). CAP1, an adenylate cyclase-associated protein gene, regulates bud–hypha transitions, filamentous growth, and cyclic AMP levels and is required for virulence of Candida albicans. J Bacteriol 183, 3211–3223.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beck-Sagué, C. M. & Jarvis, W. R. ( 1993; ). Secular trends in the epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in the United States, 1980–1990. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. J Infect Dis 167, 1247–1251.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brown, D. H., Jr, Giusani, A. D., Chen, X. & Kumamoto, C. A. ( 1999; ). Filamentous growth of Candida albicans in response to physical environmental cues and its regulation by the unique CZF1 gene. Mol Microbiol 34, 651–662.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Calderone, R., Suzuki, S., Cannon, R. & 17 other authors ( 2000; ). Candida albicans: adherence, signaling and virulence. Med Mycol 38 Suppl. 1, 125–137.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Collart, M. A. & Oliviero, S. ( 1993; ). Preparation of yeast RNA. In Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, pp. 13.12.1–13.12.5. Edited by F. M. Ausubel, R. Bret, R. E. Kingston, D. D. Moore, J. G. Seidman, J. A. Smith & K. Struhl. New York, NY: Wiley.
  7. Colombo, A. L., Nucci, M., Salomao, R., Branchini, M. L., Richtmann, R., Derossi, A. & Wey, S. B. ( 1999; ). High rate of non-albicans candidemia in Brazilian tertiary care hospitals. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 34, 281–286.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cutler, J. E. ( 1991; ). Putative virulence factors of Candida albicans. Annu Rev Microbiol 45, 187–218.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. De Bernardis, F., Muhlschlegel, F. A., Cassone, A. & Fonzi, W. A. ( 1998; ). The pH of the host niche controls gene expression in and virulence of Candida albicans. Infect Immun 66, 3317–3325.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. De Bernardis, F., Arancia, S., Morelli, L., Hube, B., Sanglard, D., Schafer, W. & Cassone, A. ( 1999; ). Evidence that members of the secretory aspartyl proteinase gene family, in particular SAP2, are virulence factors for Candida vaginitis. J Infect Dis 179, 201–208.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Edmond, M. B., Wallace, S. E., McClish, D. K., Pfaller, M. A., Jones, R. N. & Wenzel, R. P. ( 1999; ). Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: a three-year analysis. Clin Infect Dis 29, 239–244.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Engen, R. L. & Clark, C. L. ( 1990; ). High-performance liquid chromatography determination of erythrocyte membrane phospholipid composition in several animal species. Am J Vet Res 51, 577–580.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Ernst, J. F. ( 2000; ). Transcription factors in Candida albicans – environmental control of morphogenesis. Microbiology 146, 1763–1774.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Espinel-Ingroff, A. ( 1997; ). Clinical relevance of antifungal resistance. Infect Dis Clin North Am 11, 929–944.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fallon, K., Bausch, K., Noonan, J., Huguenel, E. & Tamburini, P. ( 1997; ). Role of aspartic proteases in disseminated Candida albicans infection in mice. Infect Immun 65, 551–556.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Ghannoum, M. A. ( 2000; ). Potential role of phospholipases in virulence and fungal pathogenesis. Clin Microbiol Rev 13, 122–143.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Ghannoum, M. A., Spellberg, B., Saporito-Irwin, S. M. & Fonzi, W. A. ( 1995; ). Reduced virulence of Candida albicans PHR1 mutants. Infect Immun 63, 4528–4530.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gygi, S. P., Rochon, Y., Franza, B. R. & Aebersold, R. ( 1999; ). Correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in yeast. Mol Cell Biol 19, 1720–1730.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Hazen, K. C. & Hazen, B. W. ( 1987; ). Temperature-modulated physiological characteristics of Candida albicans. Microbiol Immunol 31, 497–508.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Hoover, C. I., Jantapour, M. J., Newport, G., Agabian, N. & Fisher, S. J. ( 1998; ). Cloning and regulated expression of the Candida albicans phospholipase B (PLB1) gene. FEMS Microbiol Lett 167, 163–169.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Hube, B., Monod, M., Schofield, D. A., Brown, A. J. & Gow, N. A. ( 1994; ). Expression of seven members of the gene family encoding secretory aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans. Mol Microbiol 14, 87–99.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ibrahim, A. S., Mirbod, F., Filler, S. G., Banno, Y., Cole, G. T., Kitajima, Y., Edwards, J. E., Jr, Nozawa, Y. & Ghannoum, M. A. ( 1995; ). Evidence implicating phospholipase as a virulence factor of Candida albicans. Infect Immun 63, 1993–1998.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Kao, A. S., Brandt, M. E., Pruitt, W. R. & 9 other authors ( 1999; ). The epidemiology of candidemia in two United States cities: results of a population-based active surveillance. Clin Infect Dis 29, 1164–1170.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kurumi, Y., Adachi, Y., Itoh, T., Kobayashi, H., Nanno, T. & Yamamoto, T. ( 1991; ). Novel high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of membrane phospholipid composition of rat hepatocytes. Gastroenterol Jpn 26, 628–632.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Lane, S., Birse, C., Zhou, S., Matson, R. & Liu, H. ( 2001; ). DNA array studies demonstrate convergent regulation of virulence factors by Cph1, Cph2, and Efg1 in Candida albicans. J Biol Chem 276, 48988–48996.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Lee, K. L., Buckley, H. R. & Campbell, C. C. ( 1975; ). An amino acid liquid synthetic medium for the development of mycelial and yeast forms of Candida albicans. Sabouraudia 13, 148–153.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Leidich, S. D., Ibrahim, A. S., Fu, Y. & 8 other authors ( 1998; ). Cloning and disruption of caPLB1, a phospholipase B gene involved in the pathogenicity of Candida albicans. J Biol Chem 273, 26078–26086.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Muhlschlegel, F. A. & Fonzi, W. A. ( 1997; ). PHR2 of Candida albicans encodes a functional homolog of the pH-regulated gene PHR1 with an inverted pattern of pH-dependent expression. Mol Cell Biol 17, 5960–5967.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Mukherjee, P. K. & Ghannoum, M. A. ( 2001; ). Secretory proteins in fungal virulence. In Fungal Pathogenesis: Principles and Clinical Applications, pp. 51–79. Edited by R. A. Calderone & R. L. Cihlar. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.
  30. Mukherjee, P. K., Seshan, K. R., Leidich, S. D., Chandra, J., Cole, G. T. & Ghannoum, M. A. ( 2001; ). Reintroduction of the PLB1 gene into Candida albicans restores virulence in vivo. Microbiology 147, 2585–2597.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Naglik, J. R., Newport, G., White, T. C., Fernandes-Naglik, L. L., Greenspan, J. S., Greenspan, D., Sweet, S. P., Challacombe, S. J. & Agabian, N. ( 1999; ). In vivo analysis of secreted aspartyl proteinase expression in human oral candidiasis. Infect Immun 67, 2482–2490.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Nelson, G. J. ( 1967; ). Lipid composition of erythrocytes in various mammalian species. Biochim Biophys Acta 144, 221–232.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Ramon, A. M., Porta, A. & Fonzi, W. A. ( 1999; ). Effect of environmental pH on morphological development of Candida albicans is mediated via the PacC-related transcription factor encoded by PRR2. J Bacteriol 181, 7524–7530.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ripeau, J. S., Fiorillo, M., Aumont, F., Belhumeur, P. & de Repentigny, L. ( 2002; ). Evidence for differential expression of Candida albicans virulence genes during oral infection in intact and human immunodeficiency virus type 1-transgenic mice. J Infect Dis 185, 1094–1102.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Staib, P., Wirsching, S., Strauss, A. & Morschhauser, J. ( 2001; ). Gene regulation and host adaptation mechanisms in Candida albicans. Int J Med Microbiol 291, 183–188.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Stamos, J. K. & Rowley, A. H. ( 1995; ). Candidemia in a pediatric population. Clin Infect Dis 20, 571–575.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Tsuboi, R., Matsuda, K., Ko, I. J. & Ogawa, H. ( 1989; ). Correlation between culture medium pH, extracellular proteinase activity, and cell growth of Candida albicans in insoluble stratum corneum-supplemented media. Arch Dermatol Res 281, 342–345.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Wey, S. B., Mori, M., Pfaller, M. A., Woolson, R. F. & Wenzel, R. P. ( 1988; ). Hospital-acquired candidemia. The attributable mortality and excess length of stay. Arch Intern Med 148, 2642–2645.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. White, T. C. & Agabian, N. ( 1995; ). Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases: isoenzyme pattern is determined by cell type, and levels are determined by environmental factors. J Bacteriol 177, 5215–5221.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Wright, L. C., Chen, S. C., Wilson, C. F., Simpanya, M. F., Blackstock, R., Cox, G. M., Murphy, J. W. & Sorrell, T. C. ( 2002; ). Strain-dependent effects of environmental signals on the production of extracellular phospholipase by Cryptococcus neoformans. FEMS Microbiol Lett 209, 175–181.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Wu, T. & Samaranayake, L. P. ( 1999; ). The expression of secreted aspartyl proteinases of Candida species in human whole saliva. J Med Microbiol 48, 711–720.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Zhao, R., Lockhart, S. R., Daniels, K. & Soll, D. R. ( 2002; ). Roles of TUP1 in switching, phase maintenance, and phase-specific gene expression in Candida albicans. Eukaryotic Cell 1, 353–365.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.25829-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.25829-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error