1887

Abstract

is a ubiquitous bacterium that causes opportunistic infections in a range of host tissues and organs. Infections by are difficult to treat and hence there is interest in the development of effective therapeutics. One of the key mechanisms that uses to control the expression of many virulence factors is the -acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) regulatory system. Hence, there is considerable interest in targeting this regulatory pathway to develop novel therapeutics for infection control. is the principal cause of microbial keratitis and of infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) sufferers, and AHL-dependent cell-to-cell signalling has been shown to be important for both infection types. However, keratitis tends to be an acute infection whereas infection of CF patients develops into a chronic, life-long infection. Thus, it is unclear whether AHL-regulated virulence plays the same role during these infections. This review presents a comparison of the role of AHL signalling in -mediated microbial keratitis and chronic lung infections of CF patients.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2008/019281-0
2008-08-01
2019-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/154/8/2184.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2008/019281-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Albus, A. M., Pesci, E. C., Runyen-Janecky, L. J., West, S. E. H. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 1997; ). Vfr controls quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol 179, 3928–3935.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Azghani, A. O., Bedinghaus, T. & Klein, R. ( 2000; ). Detection of elastase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sputum and its potential role in epithelial cell permeability. Lung 178, 181–189.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bainbridge, T. & Fick, R. D. ( 1989; ). Functional importance of cystic fibrosis immunoglobulin fragments generated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. J Lab Clin Med 114, 728–733.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bjarnsholt, T., Jensen, P. O., Burmolle, M., Hentzer, M., Haagensen, J. A., Hougen, H. P., Calum, H., Madsen, K. G., Moser, C. & other authors ( 2005; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa tolerance to tobramycin, hydrogen peroxide and polymorphonuclear leukocytes is quorum-sensing dependent. Microbiology 151, 373–383.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bleves, S., Soscia, C., Nogueira-Orlandi, P., Lazdunski, A. & Filloux, A. ( 2005; ). Quorum sensing negatively controls type III secretion regulon expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. J Bacteriol 187, 3898–3902.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Brint, J. M. & Ohman, D. E. ( 1995; ). Synthesis of multiple exoproducts in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under the control of RhlR-RhlI, another set of regulators in strain PAO1 with homology to the autoinducer-responsive LuxR-LuxI family. J Bacteriol 177, 7155–7163.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Chapon-Herve, V., Akrim, M., Latifi, A., Williams, P., Lazdunski, A. & Bally, M. ( 1997; ). Regulation of the xcp secretion pathway by multiple quorum sensing modulons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mol Microbiol 24, 1169–1178.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Christensen, L. D., Moser, C., Jensen, P. O., Rasmussen, T. B., Christophersen, L., Kjelleberg, S., Kumar, N., Høiby, N., Givskov, M. & Bjarnsholt, T. ( 2007; ). Impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing on biofilm persistence in an in vivo intraperitoneal foreign-body infection model. Microbiology 153, 2312–2320.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Chugani, S. A., Whiteley, M., Lee, K. M., D'Argenio, D., Manoil, C. & Greenberg, E. P. ( 2001; ). QscR, a modulator of quorum sensing signal synthesis and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 2752–2757.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Collier, D. N., Anderson, L., McKnight, S. L., Noah, T. L., Knowles, M., Boucher, R., Schwab, U., Gilligan, P. & Pesci, E. C. ( 2002; ). A bacterial cell to cell signal in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. FEMS Microbiol Lett 215, 41–46.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Corech, R., Rao, A., Laxova, A., Moss, J., Rock, M. J., Li, Z., Kosorok, M. R., Splaingard, M. L., Farrell, P. M. & Barbieri, J. T. ( 2005; ). Early immune response to the components of the type III system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Microbiol 43, 3956–3962.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cripps, A. W., Dunkley, M. L., Clancy, R. L. & Kyd, J. ( 1995; ). Pulmonary immunity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Immunol Cell Biol 73, 418–424.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. D'Argenio, D. A., Wu, M., Hoffman, L. R., Kulasekara, H. D., Déziel, E., Smith, E. E., Nguyen, H., Ernst, R. K., Larson Freeman, T. J. & other authors ( 2007; ). Growth phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasR mutants adapted to the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Mol Microbiol 64, 512–533.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Davies, D. G., Parsek, M. R., Pearson, J. P., Iglewski, B. H., Costerton, J. W. & Greenberg, E. P. ( 1998; ). The involvement of cell-cell signals in the development of a bacterial biofilm. Science 280, 295–298.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. de Kievit, T., Seed, P. C., Nezezon, J., Passador, L. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 1999; ). RsaL, a novel repressor of virulence gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol 181, 2175–2184.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Deziel, E., Lepine, F., Milot, S., He, J., Mindrinos, M. N., Tompkins, R. G. & Rahme, L. G. ( 2004; ). Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) reveals a role for 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline in cell-to-cell communication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 1339–1344.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dong, Y.-H., Wang, L.-H., Xu, J.-L., Zhang, H.-B., Zhang, X.-F. & Zhang, L.-H. ( 2001; ). Quenching quorum-sensing dependent bacterial infection by an N-acyl homoserine lactonase. Nature 411, 813–817.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Engel, L. S., Hobden, J. A., Moreau, J. M., Callegan, M. C., Hill, J. M. & O'Callaghan, R. J. ( 1997; ). Pseudomonas deficient in protease IV has significantly reduced corneal virulence. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38, 1535–1542.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Erickson, D. L., Endersby, R., Kirkham, A., Stuber, K., Vollman, D. D., Rabin, H. R., Mitchell, I. & Storey, D. G. ( 2002; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing systems may control virulence factor expression in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. Infect Immun 70, 1783–1790.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Feltman, H., Schulert, G., Khan, S., Jain, M., Peterson, L. & Hauser, A. R. ( 2001; ). Prevalence of type III secretion genes in clinical and environmental isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology 147, 2659–2669.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fleiszig, S. M. J., Wienerkronish, J. P., Miyazaki, H., Vallas, V., Mostov, K. E., Kanada, D., Sawa, T., Yen, T. S. B. & Frank, D. W. ( 1997; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa-mediated cytotoxicity and invasion correlate with distinct genotypes at the loci encoding exoenzyme S. Infect Immun 65, 579–586.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Gambello, M. J. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 1991; ). Cloning and characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasR gene, a transcriptional activator of elastase expression. J Bacteriol 173, 3000–3009.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Gambello, M. J., Jaye, S. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 1993; ). LasR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a transcriptional activator of the alkaline protease gene (apr) and an enhancer of exotoxin A expression. Infect Immun 61, 1180–1184.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Geisenberger, O., Givskov, M., Riedel, K., Hoiby, N., Tummler, B. & Eberl, L. ( 2000; ). Production of N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from chronic lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett 184, 273–278.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Giwercman, B., Lambert, P. A., Rosdahl, V. T., Shand, G. H. & Hoiby, N. ( 1990; ). Rapid emergence of resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients due to in-vivo selection of stable partially derepressed beta-lactamase producing strains. J Antimicrob Chemother 26, 247–259.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Hazlett, L. D. ( 2005; ). Role of innate and adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of keratitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 13, 133–138.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Hazlett, L. D., Rosen, D. D. & Berk, R. S. ( 1978; ). Age-related susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa ocular infections in mice. Infect Immun 20, 25–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Hazlett, L. D., Wells, P., Spann, B. & Berk, R. S. ( 1980; ). Penetration of the unwounded immature mouse cornea and conjunctiva by Pseudomonas: SEM-TEM analysis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 19, 694–697.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hazlett, L. D., Zucker, M. & Berk, R. S. ( 1992; ). Distribution and kinetics of the inflammatory cell response to ocular challenge with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in susceptible versus resistant mice. Ophthalmic Res 24, 32–39.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hazlett, L. D., McClellan, S., Kwon, B. & Barrett, R. ( 2000; ). Increased severity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infection in strains of mice designated as Th1 versus Th2 responsive. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41, 805–810.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hentzer, M., Riedel, K., Rasmussen, T. B., Heydorn, A., Andersen, J. B., Parsek, M. R., Rice, S. A., Eberl, L., Molin, S. & other authors ( 2002; ). Inhibition of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm bacteria by a halogenated furanone compound. Microbiology 148, 87–102.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Hentzer, M., Wu, H., Andersen, J. B., Riedel, K., Rasmussen, T. B., Bagge, N., Kumar, N., Schembri, M. A., Song, Z. & other authors ( 2003; ). Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by quorum sensing inhibitors. EMBO J 22, 3803–3815.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Heurlier, K., De'nervaud, V., Pessi, G., Reimmann, C. & Haas, D. ( 2003; ). Negative control of quorum sensing by RpoN (σ 54) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. J Bacteriol 185, 2227–2235.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Heurlier, K., Denervaud, V. & Haas, D. ( 2006; ). Impact of quorum sensing on fitness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Int J Med Microbiol 296, 93–102.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hoffmann, N., Rasmussen, T. B., Jensen, P., Stub, C., Hentzer, M., Molin, S., Ciofu, O., Givskov, M., Johansen, H. K. & Høiby, N. ( 2005; ). Novel mouse model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis. Infect Immun 73, 2504–2514.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Hogardt, M., Roeder, M., Schreff, A. M., Eberl, L. & Heesemann, J. ( 2004; ). Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoS is controlled by quorum sensing and RpoS. Microbiology 150, 843–851.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Hoiby, N., Johansen, H. K., Moser, C., Song, Z. J., Ciofu, O. & Kharazmi, A. ( 2001; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the in vitro and in vivo biofilm mode of growth. Microbes Infect 3, 23–35.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Jain, M., Ramirez, D., Seshadri, R., Cullina, J. F., Powers, C. A., Schulert, G. S., Bar-Meir, M., Sullivan, C. L., McColley, S. A. & Hauser, A. R. ( 2004; ). Type III secretion phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains change during infection of individuals with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Microbiol 42, 5229–5237.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Jensen, P. O., Bjarnsholt, T., Phipps, R., Rasmussen, T. B., Calum, H., Christoffersen, L., Moser, C., Williams, P., Pressler, T. & other authors ( 2007; ). Rapid necrotic killing of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is caused by quorum-sensing-controlled production of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology 153, 1329–1338.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Jobsis, Q., Raatgeep, H. C., Schellekens, S. L., Kroesbergen, A., Hop, W. C. & de Jongste, J. C. ( 2000; ). Hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in exhaled air of children with cystic fibrosis during antibiotic treatment. Eur Respir J 16, 95–100.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kessler, E. & Blumberg, S. ( 1987; ). Specific inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase as potential drugs for the treatment of Pseudomonas keratitis. Antibiot Chemother 39, 102–112.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Kleerebezem, M., Quadri, L. E. N., Kuipers, O. P. & Devos, W. M. ( 1997; ). Quorum sensing by peptide pheromones and two component signal transduction systems in Gram positive bacteria. Mol Microbiol 24, 895–904.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Laibson, P. R. ( 1990; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Current Ocular Therapy, pp. 35–37. Edited by F. T. Fraunfelder & F. H. Roy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.
  44. Lang, S. & Wullbrandt, D. ( 1999; ). Rhamnose lipids – biosynthesis, microbial production and application potential. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 51, 22–32.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Latifi, A., Winson, M. K., Foglino, M., Bycroft, B. W., Stewart, G. S. A. B., Lazdunski, A. & Williams, P. ( 1995; ). Multiple homologues of LuxR and LuxI control expression of vurulence determinants and secondary metabolites through quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Mol Microbiol 17, 333–343.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lau, G. W., Ran, H., Kong, F., Hassett, D. J. & Mavrodi, D. ( 2004; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin is critical for lung infection in mice. Infect Immun 72, 4275–4278.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Ledgham, F., Ventre, I., Soscia, C., Foglino, M., Sturgis, J. N. & Lazdunski, A. ( 2003; ). Interactions of the quorum sensing regulator QscR: interaction with itself and the other regulators of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR and RhlR. Mol Microbiol 48, 199–210.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Maier, R. M. & Soberon-Chavez, G. ( 2000; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipids: biosynthesis and potential applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54, 625–633.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. McGrath, S., Wade, D. S. & Pesci, E. C. ( 2004; ). Dueling quorum sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa control the production of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). FEMS Microbiol Lett 230, 27–34.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Miyairi, S., Tateda, K., Fuse, E. T., Ueda, C., Saito, H., Takabatake, T., Ishii, Y., Horikawa, M., Ishiguro, M. & other authors ( 2006; ). Immunization with 3-oxododecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone-protein conjugate protects mice from lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. J Med Microbiol 55, 1381–1387.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Moss, J., Ehrmantraut, M. E., Banwart, B. D., Frank, D. W. & Barbieri, J. T. ( 2001; ). Sera from adult patients with cystic fibrosis contain antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III apparatus. Infect Immun 69, 1185–1188.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Nouwens, A. S., Beatson, S. A., Whitchurch, C. B., Walsh, B. J., Schweizer, H. P., Mattick, J. S. & Cordwell, S. J. ( 2003; ). Proteome analysis of extracellular proteins regulated by the las and rhl quorum sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Microbiology 149, 1311–1322.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. O'Callaghan, R. J., Engel, L. S., Hobden, J. A., Callegan, M. C., Green, L. C. & Hill, J. M. ( 1996; ). Pseudomonas keratitis. The role of an uncharacterized exoprotein, protease IV, in corneal virulence. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 37, 534–543.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Ochsner, U. A., Fiechter, A. & Reiser, J. ( 1994; ). Isolation, characterization, and expression in Escherichia coli of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhlAB genes encoding a rhamnosyltransferase involved in rhamnolipid biosurfactant synthesis. J Biol Chem 269, 19787–19795.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Passador, L., Cook, J. M., Gambello, M. J., Rust, L. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 1993; ). Expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes requires cell-to-cell communication. Science 260, 1127–1130.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Pearson, J. P., Kendall, M. G., Passador, L., Tucker, K. D., Eberhared, A., Iglewski, B. H. & Greenberg, E. P. ( 1994; ). Structure of the autoinducer required for expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91, 197–201.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Pearson, J. P., Passador, L., Iglewski, B. H. & Greenberg, E. P. ( 1995; ). A second N-acyl homoserine lactone signal produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92, 1490–1494.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Pearson, J. P., Pesci, E. C. & Iglewski, B. ( 1997; ). Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems in control of elastase and rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes. J Bacteriol 179, 5756–5767.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Pearson, J. P., Feldman, M., Iglewski, B. H. & Prince, A. ( 2000; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell-to-cell signaling is required for virulence in a model of acute pulmonary infection. Infect Immun 68, 4331–4334.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Pesci, E. C., Milbank, J. B. J., Pearson, J. P., McKnight, S., Kende, A. S., Greenberg, E. P. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 1999; ). Quinolone signalling in the cell-to-cell communication system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 11229–11234.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Pessi, G. & Haas, D. ( 2000; ). Transcriptional control of the hydrogen cyanide biosynthetic genes hcnABC by the anaerobic regulator ANR and the quorum-sensing regulators LasR and RhlR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol 182, 6940–6949.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Pessi, G., Williams, F., Hindle, Z., Heurlier, K., Holden, M. T. G., Camara, M., Haas, D. & Williams, P. ( 2001; ). The global posttranscriptional regulator RsmA modulates production of virulence determinants and N-acylhomoserine lactones in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol 183, 6676–6683.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Preston, M. J., Seed, P. C., Toder, D. S., Iglewski, B. H., Ohman, D. E., Gustin, J. K., Goldberg, J. B. & Pier, G. B. ( 1997; ). Contribution of protease and LasR to the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during corneal infections. Infect Immun 65, 3086–3090.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Rasmussen, T. B., Bjarnsholt, T., Skindersoe, M. E., Hentzer, M., Kristoffersen, P., Kote, M., Nielsen, J., Eberl, L. & Givskov, M. ( 2005; ). Screening for quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSI) by use of a novel genetic system, the QSI selector. J Bacteriol 187, 1799–1814.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Reimmann, C., Beyeler, M., Latifi, A., Winteler, H., Foglino, M., Lazdunski, A. & Haas, D. ( 1997; ). The global activator GacA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 positively controls the production of the autoinducer N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and the formation of the virulence factors pyocyanin, cyanide, and lipase. Mol Microbiol 24, 309–319.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Rice, S. A., McDougald, D., Kumar, N. & Kjelleberg, S. ( 2005; ). The use of quorum sensing blockers as therapeutic agents for the control of biofilm associated infections. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 6, 178–184.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Sawa, T., Yahr, T. L., Ohara, M., Kurahashi, K., Gropper, M. A., Wiener-Kronish, J. P. & Frank, D. W. ( 1999; ). Active and passive immunization with the Pseudomonas V antigen protects against type III intoxication and lung injury. Nat Med 5, 392–398.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Schuster, M., Lostroh, C. P., Ogi, T. & Greenberg, E. P. ( 2003; ). Identification, timing, and signal specificity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-controlled genes: a transcriptome analysis. J Bacteriol 185, 2066–2079.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Seed, P. C., Passador, L. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 1995; ). Activation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasI gene by LasR and the Pseudomonas autoinducer PAI: an autoinduction regulatory hierarchy. J Bacteriol 177, 654–659.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Shaver, C. M. & Hauser, A. R. ( 2004; ). Relative contributions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU, ExoS, and ExoT to virulence in the lung. Infect Immun 72, 6969–6977.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Shiner, E. K., Terentyev, D., Bryan, A., Sennoune, S., Martinez-Zaguilan, R., Li, G., Gyorke, S., Williams, S. C. & Rumbaugh, K. P. ( 2006; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa autoinducer modulates host cell responses through calcium signalling. Cell Microbiol 8, 1601–1610.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Singh, P. K., Schaefer, A. L., Parsek, M. R., Moninger, T. O., Welsh, M. J. & Greenberg, E. P. ( 2000; ). Quorum-sensing signals indicate that cystic fibrosis lungs are infected with bacterial biofilms. Nature 407, 762–764.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Smith, R. S. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 2003a; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing as a potential antimicrobial target. J Clin Invest 112, 1460–1465.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Smith, R. S., Kelly, R., Iglewski, B. H. & Phipps, R. P. ( 2002; ). The Pseudomonas autoinducer N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone induces cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 production in human lung fibroblasts: implications for inflammation. J Immunol 169, 2636–2642.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Smith, K. M., Bu, Y. G. & Suga, H. ( 2003; ). Induction and inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing by synthetic autoinducer analogs. Chem Biol 10, 81–89.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Smith, E. E., Buckley, D. G., Wu, Z., Saenphimmachak, C., Hoffman, L. R., D'Argenio, D. A., Miller, S. I., Ramsey, B. W., Speert, D. P. & other authors ( 2006; ). Genetic adaptation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 8487–8492.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Stapleton, F., Keay, L., Jalbert, I. & Cole, N. ( 2007; ). The epidemiology of contact lens related infiltrates. Optom Vis Sci 84, 257–272.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Storey, D. G., Ujack, E. E., Rabin, H. R. & Mitchell, I. ( 1998; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasR transcription correlates with the transcription of lasA, lasB, and toxA in chronic lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis. Infect Immun 66, 2521–2528.
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Thompson, L. S., Webb, J. S., Rice, S. A. & Kjelleberg, S. ( 2003; ). The alternative sigma factor RpoN regulates the quorum sensing gene rhlI in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiol Lett 220, 187–195.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Tingpej, P., Smith, L., Rose, B., Zhu, H., Conibear, T., Al Nassafi, K., Manos, J., Elkins, M., Bye, P. & other authors ( 2007; ). Phenotypic characterization of clonal and nonclonal Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from lungs of adults with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Microbiol 45, 1697–1704.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Toder, D. S., Gambello, M. J. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 1991; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasA: a second elastase under the transcriptional control of lasR. Mol Microbiol 5, 2003–2010.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Toder, D. S., Ferrell, S. J., Nezezon, J. L., Rust, L. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 1994; ). lasA and lasB genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: analysis of transcription and gene product activity. Infect Immun 62, 1320–1327.
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Traidej, M., Caballero, A. R., Marquart, M. E., Thibodeaux, B. A. & O'Callaghan, R. J. ( 2003; ). Molecular analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa protease IV expressed in Pseudomonas putida. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44, 190–196.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Twining, S. S., Kirschner, S. E., Mahnke, L. A. & Frank, D. W. ( 1993; ). Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase, alkaline protease, and exotoxin A on corneal proteinases and proteins. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 34, 2699–2712.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Vikstrom, E., Tafazoli, F. & Magnusson, K.-E. ( 2006; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing molecule N-(3 oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone disrupts epithelial barrier integrity of Caco-2 cells. FEBS Lett 580, 6921–6928.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Wade, D. S., Calfee, M. W., Rocha, E. R., Ling, E. A., Engstrom, E., Coleman, J. P. & Pesci, E. C. ( 2005; ). Regulation of Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol 187, 4372–4380.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Wagner, V. E., Bushnell, D., Passador, L., Brooks, A. I. & Iglewski, B. H. ( 2003; ). Microarray analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing regulons: effects of growth phase and environment. J Bacteriol 185, 2080–2095.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Wang, Y., Dai, Y., Zhang, Y., Hu, Y. B., Yang, B. Y. & Chen, S. Y. ( 2007; ). Effects of quorum sensing autoinducer degradation gene on virulence and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sci China C Life Sci 50, 385–391.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  89. West, S. E. H., Sample, A. K. & Runyenjanecky, L. J. ( 1994; ). The Vfr gene product, required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and protease production, belongs to the cyclic AMP receptor protein family. J Bacteriol 176, 7532–7542.
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Willcox, M. D. P., Sankaridurg, P. R., Zhu, H., Hume, E. B. H., Cole, N., Conibear, T., Glasson, M., Harmis, N. & Stapleton, F. ( 2002; ). Inflammation and infection and effects of the closed eye. In Silicone Hydrogels: Continuous Wear Contact Lenses, pp. 90–125. Edited by D. Sweeney. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  91. Wilson, R., Sykes, D. A., Watson, D., Rutman, A., Taylor, G. W. & Cole, P. J. ( 1988; ). Measurement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazine pigments in sputum and assessment of their contribution to sputum sol toxicity for respiratory epithelium. Infect Immun 56, 2515–2517.
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Winzer, K., Falconer, C., Garber, N. C., Diggle, S. P., Camara, M. & Williams, P. ( 2000; ). The Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL are controlled by quorum sensing and by RpoS. J Bacteriol 182, 6401–6411.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Wu, H., Song, Z., Givskov, M., Doring, G., Worlitzsch, D., Mathee, K., Rygaard, J. & Hoiby, N. ( 2001; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasI and rhlI quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection. Microbiology 147, 1105–1113.
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Wu, H., Song, Z., Hentzer, M., Andersen, J. B., Molin, S., Givskov, M. & Hoiby, N. ( 2004; ). Synthetic furanones inhibit quorum-sensing and enhance bacterial clearance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice. J Antimicrob Chemother 53, 1054–1061.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Wu, L., Estrada, O., Zaborina, O., Bains, M., Shen, L., Kohler, J. E., Patel, N., Musch, M. W., Chang, E. B. & other authors ( 2005; ). Recognition of host immune activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Science 309, 774–777.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Xu, F., Byun, T., Deussen, H. J. & Duke, K. R. ( 2003; ). Degradation of N-acylhomoserine lactones, the bacterial quorum-sensing molecules, by acylase. J Biotechnol 101, 89–96.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Zhu, H., Thuruthyil, S. J. & Willcox, M. D. P. ( 2002; ). Determination of quorum-sensing signal molecules and virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from contact lens-induced microbial keratitis. J Med Microbiol 51, 1063–1070.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Zhu, H., Bandara, R., Conibear, T., Thuruthyil, S. J., Rice, S. A., Kjelleberg, S., Givskov, M. & Willcox, M. D. P. ( 2004; ). Pseudomonas aeruginosa with lasI quorum-sensing deficiency is avirulent during corneal infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45, 1897–1903.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Zhu, H., Conibear, T., Bandara, R., Aliwarga, Y., Stapleton, F. & Willcox, M. ( 2006; ). Type III secretion system-associated toxins, proteases, serotypes, and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates associated with keratitis. Curr Eye Res 31, 297–306.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Zimmermann, S., Wagner, C., Muller, W., Brenner-Weiss, G., Hug, F., Prior, B., Obst, U. & Hansch, G. M. ( 2006; ). Induction of neutrophil chemotaxis by the quorum-sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. Infect Immun 74, 5687–5692.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2008/019281-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2008/019281-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error