1887

Abstract

is an important nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen. Hospital infections are frequently complicated by the ability of bacteria to form biofilms on different surfaces. The development of bacterial films on medical indwelling devices, such as prostheses, often requires surgical procedures to remove the contaminated implant. Indeed, biofilm formation on central endovenous catheters is a major cause of primary bacteraemia in hospitals. The modulation of virulence factors in is orchestrated by a number of global regulators including RNAIII. To improve our understanding of the role of the quorum-sensing system in biofilm formation by , we constructed a number of -null mutants, derived from contemporary clinical isolates. Analysis of these mutants indicates that has a significant impact on biofilm development for most of the isolates tested. Our data show that RNAIII can control both biofilm formation and accumulation. The effect included both up- and downregulation of biofilms, even for isolates within the same lineage, corroborating the hypothesis that the mechanisms involved in biofilms are complex and probably multifactorial.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2007/016014-0
2008-11-01
2019-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/154/11/3480.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2007/016014-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Adhikari, R. P., Arvidson, S. & Novick, R. P. ( 2007; ). A nonsense mutation in agrA accounts for the defect in agr expression and the avirulence of Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 traP : : kan. Infect Immun 75, 4534–4540.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Amaral, M. M., Coelho, L. R., Flores, R. P., Souza, R. R., Silva-Carvalho, M. C., Teixeira, L. A., Ferreira-Carvalho, B. T. & Figueiredo, A. M. S. ( 2005; ). The predominant variant of the Brazilian epidemic clonal complex of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has an enhanced ability to produce biofilm and to adhere to and invade airway epithelial cells. J Infect Dis 192, 801–810.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Balaban, N., Cirioni, O., Giacometti, A., Ghiselli, R., Braunstein, J. B., Silvestri, C., Mocchegiani, F., Saba, V. & Scalise, G. ( 2007; ). Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm infection by the quorum-sensing inhibitor RIP. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51, 2226–2229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beenken, K. E., Blevins, J. S. & Smeltzer, M. S. ( 2003; ). Mutation of sarA in Staphylococcus aureus limits biofilm formation. Infect Immun 71, 4206–4211.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Beenken, K. E., Dunman, P. M., McAleese, F., Macapagal, D., Murphy, E., Projan, S. J., Blevins, J. S. & Smeltzer, M. S. ( 2004; ). Global gene expression in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. J Bacteriol 186, 4665–4684.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Boles, B. R. & Horswill, A. R. ( 2008; ). Agr-mediated dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. PLoS Pathog 4, e1000052 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Caiazza, N. C. & O'Toole, G. A. ( 2003; ). Alpha-toxin is required for biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 185, 3214–3217.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Chaignon, P., Sadovskaya, I., Ragunah, C. H., Ramasubbu, N., Kaplan, J. B. & Jabbouri, S. ( 2007; ). Susceptibility of staphylococcal biofilms to enzymatic treatments depends on their chemical composition. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 75, 125–132.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Corrigan, R. M., Rigby, D., Handley, P. & Foster, T. J. ( 2007; ). The role of Staphylococcus aureus surface protein SasG in adherence and biofilm formation. Microbiology 153, 2435–2446.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cramton, S. E., Gerke, C., Schnell, N. F., Nichols, W. W. & Götz, F. ( 1999; ). The intercellular adhesion (ica) locus is present in Staphylococcus aureus and is required for biofilm formation. Infect Immun 67, 5427–5433.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Dunn, O. J. ( 1964; ). Basic Statistics: a Primer for the Biomedical Sciences. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  12. Frees, D., Chastanet, A., Qazi, S., Sørensen, K., Hill, P., Msadek, T. & Ingmer, H. ( 2004; ). Clp ATPases are required for stress tolerance, intracellular replication and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 54, 1445–1462.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Janzon, L. & Arvidson, S. ( 1990; ). The role of the delta-lysin gene (hld) in the regulation of virulence genes by the accessory gene regulator (agr) in Staphylococcus aureus. EMBO J 9, 1391–1399.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Jarraud, S., Lyon, G. J., Figueiredo, A. M. S., Gerard, L., Vandenesch, F., Etienne, J., Muir, T. W. & Novick, R. P. ( 2000; ). Exfoliatin-producing strains define a fourth agr specificity group in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol 182, 6517–6522.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ji, G., Beavis, R. & Novick, R. P. ( 1997; ). Bacterial interference caused by autoinducing peptide variants. Science 276, 2027–2030.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Johnson, M., Cockayne, A. & Morrissey, J. A. ( 2008; ). Iron-regulated biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus Newman requires ica and the secreted protein Emp. Infect Immun 76, 1756–1765.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kreiswirth, B. N., Löfdahl, S., Betley, M. J., O'Reilly, M., Schlievert, P. M., Bergdoll, M. S. & Novick, R. P. ( 1983; ). The toxic shock syndrome exotoxin structural gene is not detectably transmitted by a prophage. Nature 305, 709–712.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Kullik, I., Giachino, P. & Fuchs, T. ( 1998; ). Deletion of the alternative sigma factor B in Staphylococcus aureus reveals its function as a global regulator of virulence genes. J Bacteriol 180, 4814–4820.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Nesin, M., Svec, P., Lupski, J. R., Godson, G. N., Kreiswirth, B., Kornblum, J. & Projan, S. J. ( 1990; ). Cloning and nucleotide sequence of a chromosomally encoded tetracycline resistance determinant, tetA(M), from a pathogenic, methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34, 2273–2276.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Novick, R. ( 1967; ). Properties of a cryptic high-frequency transducing phage in Staphylococcus aureus. Virology 33, 155–166.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Novick, R. P., Ross, H. F., Projan, S. J., Kornblum, J., Kreiswirth, B. & Moghazeh, S. ( 1993; ). Synthesis of staphylococcal virulence factors is controlled by a regulatory RNA molecule. EMBO J 12, 3967–3975.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Novick, R. P., Ross, H. F., Figueiredo, A. M. S., Abramochkin, G. & Muir, T. ( 2000; ). Activation and inhibition of the staphylococcal agr system. Science 287, 391 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Oliveira, D. C. & de Lencastre, H. ( 2002; ). Multiplex PCR strategy for rapid identification of structural types and variants of the mec element in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46, 2155–2161.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. O'Neill, E., Pozzi, C., Houston, P., Smyth, D., Humphreys, H., Robinson, D. A. & O'Gara, J. P. ( 2007; ). Association between methicillin susceptibility and biofilm regulation in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from device-related infections. J Clin Microbiol 45, 1379–1388.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. O'Neill, E., Pozzi, C., Houston, P., Humphreys, H., Robinson, D. A., Loughman, A., Foster, T. J. & O'Gara, J. P. ( 2008; ). A novel Staphylococcus aureus biofilm phenotype mediated by the fibronectin-binding proteins, FnBPA and FnBPB. J Bacteriol 190, 3835–3850.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Otto, M. ( 2008; ). Staphylococcal biofilms. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 322, 207–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Papakyriacou, H., Vaz, D., Simor, A., Louie, M. & McGavin, M. J. ( 2000; ). Molecular analysis of the accessory gene regulator (agr) locus and balance of virulence factor expression in epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis 181, 990–1000.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Ribeiro, A., Coronado, A. Z., Silva-Carvalho, M. C., Ferreira-Carvalho, B. T., Dias, C., Rozenbaum, R., Del Peloso, P. F., da Costa Ferreira Leite, C., Teixeira, L. A. & Figueiredo, A. M. S. ( 2007; ). Detection and characterization of international community-acquired infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre cities causing both community- and hospital-associated diseases. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 59, 339–345.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. ( 1989; ). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  30. Saravia-Otten, P., Müller, H. P. & Arvidson, S. ( 1997; ). Transcription of Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin binding protein genes is negatively regulated by agr and an agr-independent mechanism. J Bacteriol 179, 5259–5263.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Shaw, L. N., Jonsson, I. M., Singh, V. K., Tarkowski, A. & Stewart, G. C. ( 2007; ). Inactivation of traP has no effect on the agr quorum-sensing system or virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun 75, 4519–4527.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Teixeira, L. A., Resende, C. A., Ormonde, L. R., Rosenbaum, R., Figueiredo, A. M. S., de Lencastre, H. & Tomasz, A. ( 1995; ). Geographic spread of epidemic multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus clone in Brazil. J Clin Microbiol 33, 2400–2404.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Tenover, F. C., Arbeit, R. D., Goering, R. V., Mickelsen, P. A., Murray, B. E., Persing, D. H. & Swaminathan, B. ( 1995; ). Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol 33, 2233–2239.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Thompson, J. D., Higgins, D. G. & Gibson, T. J. ( 1994; ). clustal w: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22, 4673–4680.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Toledo-Arana, A., Merino, N., Vergara-Irigaray, M., Debarbouille, M., Penades, J. R. & Lasa, I. ( 2005; ). Staphylococcus aureus develops an alternative, ica-independent biofilm in the absence of the arlRS two-component system. J Bacteriol 187, 5318–5329.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Tsang, L. H., Daily, S. T., Weiss, E. C. & Smeltzer, M. S. ( 2007; ). Mutation of traP in Staphylococcus aureus has no impact on expression of agr or biofilm formation. Infect Immun 75, 4528–4533.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Valle, J., Toledo-Arana, A., Berasain, C., Ghigo, J. M., Amorena, B., Penades, J. R. & Lasa, I. ( 2003; ). SarA and not sigmaB is essential for biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 48, 1075–1087.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Vuong, C., Saenz, H. L., Gotz, F. & Otto, M. ( 2000; ). Impact of the agr quorum-sensing system on adherence to polystyrene in Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis 182, 1688–1693.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Yarwood, J. M., Bartels, D. J., Volper, E. M. & Greenberg, E. P. ( 2004; ). Quorum sensing in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. J Bacteriol 186, 1838–1850.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Yarwood, J. M., Paquette, K. M., Tikh, I. B., Volper, E. M. & Greenberg, E. P. ( 2007; ). Generation of virulence factor variants in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. J Bacteriol 189, 7961–7967.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2007/016014-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2007/016014-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error