1887

Abstract

Dissimilatory adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (AprBA) is a key enzyme of the dissimilatory sulfate-reduction pathway. Homologues have been found in photo- and chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes (SOP), in which they are postulated to operate in the reverse direction, oxidizing sulfite to APS. Newly developed PCR assays allowed the amplification of 92–93 % (2.1–2.3 kb) of the APS reductase locus . PCR-based screening of 116 taxonomically divergent SOP reference strains revealed a distribution of restricted to photo- and chemotrophs with strict anaerobic or at least facultative anaerobic lifestyles, including , , , and invertebrate symbionts. In the AprBA-based tree, the SOP diverge into two distantly related phylogenetic lineages, Apr lineages I and II, with the proteins of lineage II ( and others) in closer affiliation to the enzymes of the sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). This clustering is discordant with the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB) phylogeny and indicates putative lateral gene transfer from SRP to the respective SOB lineages. In support of lateral gene transfer (LGT), several beta- and gammaproteobacterial species harbour both homologues, the DsrAB-congruent ‘authentic’ and the SRP-related, LGT-derived gene loci, while some relatives possess exclusively the SRP-related genes as a possible result of resident gene displacement by the xenologue. The two-gene state might be an intermediate in the replacement of the resident essential gene. Collected genome data demonstrate the correlation between the AprBA tree topology and the composition/arrangement of the gene loci (occurrence of or genes) from SRP and SOP of lineages I and II. The putative functional role of the SRP-related APS reductases in photo- and chemotrophic SOP is discussed.

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2007-10-01
2019-10-17
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