1887

Abstract

The Gram-negative bacterium triggers pro-inflammatory apoptotic cell death in macrophages, which is crucial for the onset of an acute inflammatory diarrhoea termed bacillary dysentery. The Mxi-Spa type III secretion system promotes bacterial uptake and escape into the cytoplasm, where, dependent on the translocator/effector protein IpaB, caspase-1 [interleukin (IL)-1-converting enzyme] and its substrate IL-1 are activated. Here, we show that in the course of a macrophage infection, IpaB is secreted intracellularly for more than 1 h post-infection and progressively accumulates in aggregates on the bacterial surface. Concomitantly, the bacterial pool of IpaB is gradually depleted. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide -chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) dose-dependently inhibited the Mxi-Spa-dependent secretion of IpaB triggered by the dye Congo red and abolished translocation of IpaB into the host-cell cytoplasm of -infected macrophages. CCCP specifically inhibited -triggered macrophage death in a dose-dependent manner, even if added up to 60 min post-infection. Addition of CCCP 15 min after infection blocked macrophage cell death, the activation of caspase-1 and the maturation of IL-1, without affecting uptake or escape of from the phagosome. By contrast, CCCP used at the same concentration had no effect on ATP-induced caspase-1 activation or staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that under the conditions used, CCCP rapidly and specifically blocks bacterial type III secretion, and thus, intracellular type III secretion promotes cytotoxicity of .

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2007-09-01
2020-04-05
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