1887

Abstract

is a bacterial species that is virulent for humans and fish. Human isolates are classified into biotypes 1 and 3 (BT1 and BT3) and fish isolates into biotype 2 (BT2). However, a few human infections caused by BT2 isolates have been reported worldwide (zoonosis). These BT2 human isolates belong to serovar E (SerE), which is also present in diseased fish. The aim of the present work was to characterize a new BT2 serovar [serovar A (SerA)], which emerged in the European fish-farming industry in 2000, by means of phenotypic, serological and genetic [plasmid profiling, ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)] methodologies. The results confirmed that SerA constitutes a homogeneous O-serogroup within the species that shares plasmidic information with SerE. Like SerE, this new serogroup was resistant to fresh fish serum, as well as being highly virulent for fish. In contrast, it was sensitive to human serum and avirulent for mice, even after pretreatment with iron. The two serovars presented different biochemical profiles as well as specific patterns by ribotyping and RAPD analysis. In conclusion, SerA seems to constitute a different clonal group that has recently emerged within the species , with pathogenic potential for fish but not for humans.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/005405-0
2007-06-01
2019-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/153/6/1926.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/005405-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Amaro, C. & Biosca, E. G. ( 1996; ). Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2, pathogenic for eels, is also an opportunistic pathogen for humans. Appl Environ Microbiol 62, 1454–1457.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Amaro, C., Biosca, E. G., Fouz, B. & Garay, E. ( 1992a; ). Electrophoretic analysis of heterogeneous lipopolysaccharides from various strains of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 by silver staining and immunoblotting. Curr Microbiol 25, 99–104.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Amaro, C., Biosca, E. G., Esteve, C., Fouz, B. & Toranzo, A. E. ( 1992b; ). Comparative study of phenotypic and virulence properties in V. vulnificus biotype 1 and 2 obtained from a European eel farm experiencing mortalities. Dis Aquat Organ 13, 29–35.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Amaro, C., Biosca, E. G., Fouz, B., Toranzo, A. E. & Garay, E. ( 1994; ). Role of iron, capsule and toxins in the pathogenicity of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 for mice. Infect Immun 62, 759–763.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Amaro, C., Biosca, E. G., Fouz, B., Alcaide, E. & Esteve, C. ( 1995; ). Evidence that water transmits Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 infections to eels. Appl Environ Microbiol 61, 1133–1137.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Amaro, C., Fouz, B., Biosca, E. G., Marco-Noales, E. & Collado, R. ( 1997; ). The lipopolysaccharide O side chain of Vibrio vulnificus serogroup E is a virulence determinant for eels. Infect Immun 65, 2475–2479.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Amaro, C., Lee, C.-T., Wu, K. M., Tsai, S. F. & Hor, L. I. ( 2006; ). Genetic analyses of the plasmids of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 serovar E, p.138. Proceedings of the 2nd International FEMS Congress of European Microbiologists, Madrid, Spain.
  8. Arias, C. R., Verdonck, L., Swings, J., Garay, E. & Aznar, R. ( 1997; ). Intraspecific differentiation of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes by amplified fragment length polymorphism and ribotyping. Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 2600–2606.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Arias, C. R., Pujalte, M. J., Garay, E. & Aznar, R. ( 1998; ). Genetic relatedness among environmental, clinical, and diseased-eel Vibrio vulnificus isolates from different geographic regions by ribotyping and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 64, 3403–3410.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Aznar, R., Ludwig, W. & Schleifer, K.-H. ( 1993; ). Ribotyping and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes. Syst Appl Microbiol 16, 303–309.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Biosca, E. G., Amaro, C., Esteve, C., Alcaide, A. & Garay, E. ( 1991; ). First record of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 from diseased European eel, Anguilla anguilla L. J Fish Dis 14, 103–109.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Biosca, E. G., Oliver, J. D. & Amaro, C. ( 1996; ). Phenotypic characterization of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2; a LPS-based homogeneous O-serogroup within Vibrio vulnificus species. Appl Environ Microbiol 62, 918–927.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Biosca, E. G., Amaro, C., Larsen, J. L. & Pedersen, K. ( 1997; ). Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vibrio vulnificus: proposal for the substitution of the subspecific taxon biotype for serovar. Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 1460–1466.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bisharat, N., Agmon, V., Finkelstein, R., Raz, R., Ben-Dror, G., Lerner, L., Soboh, S., Colodner, R., Cameron, D. N. & other authors ( 1999; ). Clinical, epidemiological, and microbiological features of Vibrio vulnificus biogroup 3 causing outbreaks of wound infection and bacteraemia in Israel. Israel Vibrio Study Group. Lancet 354, 1421–1424.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bisharat, N., Amaro, C., Fouz, B., Llorens, A. & Cohen, D. I. ( 2007; ). Serological and molecular characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus biotype 3: evidence for high clonality. Microbiology 153, 847–856.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Clermont, O., Cordevant, C., Bonacorsi, S., Marecat, A., Lange, M. & Bingen, E. ( 2001; ). Automated ribotyping provides rapid phylogenetic subgroup affiliation of clinical extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. J Clin Microbiol 39, 4549–4553.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dalsgaard, A., Frimodt-Moller, N., Bruun, B., Hoi, L. & Larsen, J. L. ( 1996; ). Clinical manifestations and molecular epidemiology of Vibrio vulnificus infections in Denmark. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15, 227–232.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dalsgaard, I., Høi, L., Siebeling, R. J. & Dalsgaard, A. ( 1999; ). Indole-positive Vibrio vulnificus isolated from disease outbreaks on a Danish eel-farm. Dis Aquat Organ 35, 187–194.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Esteve, C., Alcaide, E., Herraiz, S., Canals, R., Merino, S. & Tomás, J. M. ( 2007; ). First description of non-motile Vibrio vulnificus strains virulent for eels. FEMS Microbiol Lett 266, 90–97.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Esteve-Gassent, M. D., Fouz, B. & Amaro, C. ( 2004; ). Efficacy of a bivalent vaccine against eel diseases caused by Vibrio vulnificus after its administration by four different routes. Fish Shellfish Immunol 16, 93–105.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Fouz, B. & Amaro, C. ( 2003; ). Isolation of a new serovar of Vibrio vulnificus pathogenic for eels cultured in freshwater farms. Aquaculture 217, 677–682.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Fouz, B., Esteve-Gassent, M. D., Barrera, R., Larsen, J. L., Nielsen, M. E. & Amaro, C. ( 2001; ). Field testing of a vaccine against eel diseases caused by Vibrio vulnificus. Dis Aquat Organ 45, 183–189.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Fouz, B., Alcaide, E., Barrera, R. & Amaro, C. ( 2002; ). Susceptibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to vibriosis due to Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 serovar E. Aquaculture 212, 21–30.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Fouz, B., Larsen, J. L. & Amaro, C. ( 2006a; ). Vibrio vulnificus serovar A: an emerging pathogen in European anguilliculture. J Fish Dis 29, 285–291.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Fouz, B., Zarza, C. & Amaro, C. ( 2006b; ). First description of non-motile Yersinia ruckeri serovar I strains causing disease in rainbow trout cultured in Spain. J Fish Dis 29, 339–346.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gardel, C. L. & Mekalanos, J. J. ( 1996; ). Alterations in Vibrio cholerae motility phenotypes correlate with changes in virulence factor expression. Infect Immun 64, 2246–2255.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Gutacker, M., Conza, N., Benagli, C., Pedroli, A., Bernasconi, M. V., Permin, L., Aznar, R. & Piffaretti, J. C. ( 2003; ). Population genetics of Vibrio vulnificus: identification of two divisions and a distinct eel-pathogenic clone. Appl Environ Microbiol 69, 3203–3212.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Helms, S. D., Oliver, J. D. & Travis, J. C. ( 1984; ). Role of heme compounds and haptoglobin in Vibrio vulnificus pathogenicity. Infect Immun 45, 345–349.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hitchcock, P. J. & Brown, T. M. ( 1983; ). Morphological heterogeneity among Salmonella lipopolysaccharide chemotypes in silver-stained polyacrylamide gels. J Bacteriol 154, 269–277.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Høi, L., Dalsgaard, A., Larsen, J. L., Warner, J. M. & Oliver, J. D. ( 1997; ). Comparison of ribotyping and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR for characterization of Vibrio vulnificus. Appl Environ Microbiol 63, 1674–1678.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Høi, L., Dalsgaard, I., DePaola, A., Siebeling, R. J. & Dalsgaard, A. ( 1998; ). Heterogeneity among isolates of Vibrio vulnificus recovered from eels (Anguilla anguilla) in Denmark. Appl Environ Microbiol 64, 4676–4682.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Laemmli, U. K. ( 1970; ). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680–685.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Lee, C.-T., Amaro, C., Sanjuán, E. & Hor, L.-I. ( 2005; ). Identification of DNA sequences specific for Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 strains by suppression subtractive hybridization. Appl Environ Microbiol 71, 5593–5597.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Lewin, A., Bert, B., Dalsgaard, A., Appel, B. & Høi, L. ( 2000; ). A highly homologous 68 kpb plasmid found in Vibrio vulnificus strains virulent for eels. J Basic Microbiol 40, 377–384.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Liu, P. V. ( 1957; ). Survey of hemolysin production among species of pseudomonads. J Bacteriol 74, 718–722.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Marco-Noales, E., Milán, M., Fouz, B., Sanjuán, E. & Amaro, C. ( 2001; ). Transmission to eels, portals of entry, and putative reservoirs of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E (biotype 2). Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 4717–4725.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Martin, S. J. & Siebeling, R. J. ( 1991; ). Identification of Vibrio vulnificus O serovars with antilipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody. J Clin Microbiol 29, 1684–1688.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Muroga, K., Jo, Y. & Nishibuchi, M. ( 1976; ). Pathogenic Vibrio isolated from cultured eels. I. Characteristics and taxonomic status. Fish Pathol 11, 141–145.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Oliver, J. D. ( 1989; ). Vibrio vulnificus. In Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogens, pp. 570–600. Edited by M. P. Doyle. New York: Marcel Dekker.
  40. Pitcher, D. G., Saunders, N. A. & Owen, R. J. ( 1989; ). Rapid extraction of bacterial genomic DNA with guanidinium thiocyanate. Lett Appl Microbiol 8, 151–156.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Reed, M. J. & Muench, M. ( 1938; ). A simple method for estimating fifty percent endpoints. Am J Hyg 27, 493–497.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. ( 2001; ). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbour, NY: Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory.
  43. Sanjuán, E. & Amaro, C. ( 2004; ). Protocol for specific isolation of virulent strains of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E (biotype 2) from environmental samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 7024–7032.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Song, Y.-L., Cheng, W., Shen, C.-H., Ou, Y.-C. & Song, H.-B. ( 1990; ). Occurrence of Vibrio vulnificus in cultured shrimp and eel in Taiwan. NSC Symp Ser 16, 172–179.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Sorensen, U. B. & Larsen, J. L. ( 1986; ). Serotyping of Vibrio anguillarum. Appl Environ Microbiol 51, 593–597.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Strom, M. S. & Paranjpye, R. N. ( 2000; ). Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus. Microbes Infect 2, 177–188.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Tison, D. L., Nishibuchi, M., Greenwood, J. D. & Seidler, R. J. ( 1982; ). Vibrio vulnificus biogroup 2: new biogroup pathogenic for eels. Appl Environ Microbiol 44, 640–646.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Towbin, H., Staehelin, T. & Gordon, T. ( 1979; ). Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 76, 4350–4354.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Valiente, E. & Amaro, C. ( 2006; ). A method to diagnose the carrier state of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E in eels: development and field studies. Aquaculture 258, 173–179.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Veenstra, J., Rietra, P. J., Stoutenbeek, C. P., Coster, J. M., de Gier, H. H. & Dirks-Go, S. ( 1992; ). Infection by an indole-negative variant of Vibrio vulnificus transmitted by eels. J Infect Dis 166, 209–210.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Wright, A. C., Miceli, G. A., Landry, W. L., Christy, J. B., Watkins, W. D. & Morris, J. G., Jr ( 1993; ). Rapid identification of Vibrio vulnificus on nonselective media with an alkaline phosphatase oligonucleotide probe. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 541–546.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Zhou, C., Yang, Y. & Jong, A. Y. ( 1990; ). Mini-prep in ten minutes. Biotechniques 8, 172–173.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/005405-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/005405-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error