1887

Abstract

Centrifugation of cells of in liquid medium prompted a marked activation of Sty1 and Pmk1, which are the effector mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway and the cell-integrity pathway, respectively. Transduction of the centrifugation signals showed a sensitivity threshold above which the response was dependent on time and temperature. Centrifugation-induced phosphorylation of Sty1 and Pmk1 required the presence of the main functional components of the respective signalling cascades, i.e. Wak1 or Win1 plus Wis1, and Mkh1 plus Pek1. The transcription factor Atf1 also became phosphorylated in a Sty1-dependent way upon centrifugation. Hypergravity was an important factor in the activation of Sty1 induced by centrifugation, whilst activation of Pmk1 was mostly due to gravity-associated shear forces. Centrifugation did not increase cell survival against other stresses. Rather, the increased gravitational forces produced a delay in the cell cycle, probably related to alterations in the actin-polarization pattern. Phosphorylation of the MAPK Sty1 was needed for the depolarization of actin patches induced by the centrifugation stress.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/004283-0
2007-05-01
2020-04-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/153/5/1519.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/004283-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Alfa C., Fantes P., Hyams J., McLeod M., Warbrick E.. 1993; Experiments with Fission Yeast: a Laboratory Course Manual Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory;
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Arnold W. N.. 1972; The structure of the yeast cell wall: solubilization of a marker enzyme, β -fructofuranosidase, by the autolytic enzyme system. J Biol Chem247:1161–1169
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Attfield P. V.. 1997; Stress tolerance: the key to effective strains of industrial baker's yeast. Nat Biotechnol15:1351–1357[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Buck V., Quinn J., Soto Pino T., Martin H., Saldanha J., Makino K., Morgan B. A., Millar J. B. A.. 2001; Peroxide sensors for the fission yeast stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Biol Cell12:407–419[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Daga R. R., Chang F.. 2005; Dynamic positioning of the fission yeast cell division plane. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A102:8228–8232[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Degols G., Shiozaki K., Russell P.. 1996; Activation and regulation of the Spc1 stress-activated protein kinase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Cell Biol16:2870–2877
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Goldermann M., Hanke W.. 2001; Ion channel are sensitive to gravity changes. Microgravity Sci Technol13:35–38[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ingber D. E.. 2006; Cellular mechanotransduction: putting all the pieces together again. FASEB J20:811–827[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Johanson K., Allen P. L., Lewis F., Cubano L. A., Hyman L. E., Hammond T. G.. 2002; Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression changes during rotating wall vessel suspension culture. J Appl Physiol93:2171–2180[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kyriakis J. M., Avruch J.. 2001; Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation. Physiol Rev81:807–869
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Lai S. K., Lai C. H., Yung K. K., Shum D. K., Chan Y. S.. 2006; Maturation of otolith-related brainstem neurons in the detection of vertical linear acceleration in rats. Eur J Neurosci23:2431–2446[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lewis M. L., Reynolds J. L., Cubano L. A., Hatton J. P., Lawless B. D., Piepmeier E. H.. 1998; Spaceflight alters microtubules and increases apoptosis in human lymphocytes (Jurkat. FASEB J12:1007–1018
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Madrid M., Soto T., Franco A., Paredes V., Vicente J., Hidalgo E., Gacto M., Cansado J.. 2004; A cooperative role for Atf1 and Pap1 in the detoxification of the oxidative stress induced by glucose deprivation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Biol Chem279:41594–41602[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Madrid M., Soto T., Khong H. K., Franco A., Vicente J., Gacto M., Cansado J., Pérez P.. 2006; Stress-induced response, localization, and regulation of the Pmk1 cell integrity pathway in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Biol Chem281:2033–2043[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Marshall C. J.. 1995; Specificity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: transient versus sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Cell80:179–185[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Monshausen G. B., Sievers A.. 2002; Basipetal propagation of gravity-induced surface pH changes along primary roots of Lepidium sativum L. Planta215:980–988[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Moreno S., Klar A., Nurse P.. 1991; Molecular genetic analysis of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Methods Enzymol194:795–823
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nakamura K. D., Schlenk F.. 1973; Stability of Candida utilis cells and spheroplasts toward gravitational forces. J Bacteriol116:1472–1473
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Nickerson C. A., Ott C. M., Wilson J. V., Ramamurthy M., Pierson D. L.. 2004; Microbial responses to microgravity and other low-shear environments. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev68:345–361[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Okaichi K., Ide M., Usui A., Okumura Y.. 2004; Hypergravity induces phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15, but not an expression of p53-downstream genes. J Radiat Res45:399–403[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Petersen J., Hagan I. M.. 2005; Polo kinase links the stress pathway to cell cycle control and tip growth in fission yeast. Nature435:507–512[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Quinn J., Findlay V. J., Dawson K., Millar J. B. A., Jones N., Morgan B. A., Toone W. M.. 2002; Distinct regulatory proteins control the graded transcriptional response to increasing H2O2 levels in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Biol Cell13:805–816[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rupes I., Jia Z., Young P. G.. 1999; Ssp1 promotes actin depolymerization and is involved in stress response and new end take-off control in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell10:1495–1510[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Shiozaki K., Russell P.. 1995; Cell-cycle control linked to extracellular environment by MAP kinase pathway in fission yeast. Nature378:739–743[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Shiozaki K., Russell P.. 1997; Stress-activated protein kinase pathway in cell cycle control of fission yeast. Methods Enzymol283:506–520
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Shiozaki K., Shiozaki M., Russell P.. 1998; Heat stress activates fission yeast Spc1/Sty1 MAPK by a MEKK-independent mechanism. Mol Biol Cell9:1339–1349[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Soto T., Beltran F. F., Paredes V., Madrid M., Millar J. B. A., Vicente-Soler J., Cansado J., Gacto M.. 2002; Cold induces stress-activated protein kinase-mediated response in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Eur J Biochem269:5056–5065[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Tabony J., Pochon N., Papaseit C.. 2001; Microtubule self-organisation depends upon gravity. Adv Space Res28:529–535[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Tairbekov M. G.. 2004; Mechanisms of the gravitational sensitivity of cells. J Gravit Physiol11:P181–P183
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Toda T., Shimanuki M., Yanagida M.. 1991; Fission yeast genes that confer resistance to staurosporine encode an AP-1-like transcription factor and a protein kinase related to the mammalian ERK1/MAP2 and budding yeast FUS3 and KSS1 kinases. Genes Dev5:60–73[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Treisman R.. 1996; Regulation of transcription by MAP kinase cascades. Curr Opin Cell Biol8:205–215[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. van Loon J. J., Folgering E. H., Bouten C. V., Smit T. H.. 2004; Centrifuges and inertial shear forces. J Gravit Physiol11:29–38
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Waskiewicz A. J., Cooper J. A.. 1995; Mitogen and stress response pathways: MAP kinase cascades and phosphatase regulation in mammals and yeast. Curr Opin Cell Biol7:798–805[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Wilkinson M. G., Millar J. B. A.. 1998; SAPKs and transcription factors do the nucleocytoplasmic tango. Genes Dev12:1391–1397[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Yoshida N., Minamimura T., Yoshida T., Ogawa K.. 1999; Effect of hypergravitational stress on microbial cell viability. J Biosci Bioeng88:342–344[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Zaitsevskaya-Carter T., Cooper J. A.. 1997; Spm1, a stress-activated MAP kinase that regulates morphogenesis in S. pombe. EMBO J16:1318–1331[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Zayzafoon M., Meyers V. E., McDonald J. M.. 2005; Microgravity: the immune response and bone. Immunol Rev208:267–280[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/004283-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/004283-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error