1887

Abstract

A previous microarray analysis suggested that multicopy , encoding a function-unknown response regulator, enhances expression of , which encodes a two-gene ATP-binding cassette transporter involved in the extrusion of sodium ions. The two-component regulatory system YccG–YccH was therefore renamed NatK–NatR. Here, this observation was confirmed by a fusion analysis using a strain carrying . Further, in both and mutants, expression was completely abolished, indicating that the NatK–NatR system positively regulates the expression of . In a gel retardation analysis, NatR bound to the promoter region. Using purified His-tagged NatR, DNase I footprinting analysis of the promoter region suggested that a direct repeat of [TTCA(G)CGACA], separated by a 12 bp space, would be recognized by NatR. Deleted and mutagenized promoter regions of were analysed using a fusion, and it was confirmed that the direct repeat is critical for activation by NatR.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/003673-0
2007-03-01
2020-04-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/153/3/667.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/003673-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Aguilar P. S., Hernandez-Arriaga A. M., Cybulski L. E., Erazo A. C., de Mendoza D.. 2001; Molecular basis of thermosensing: a two-component signal transduction thermometer in Bacillus subtilis . EMBO J20:1681–1691[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Asai K., Baik S. H., Kasahara Y., Moriya S., Ogasawara N.. 2000; Regulation of the transport system for C4-dicarboxylic acids in Bacillus subtilis . Microbiology146:263–271
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bolotin A., Quinquis B., Renault P., Sorokin A., Ehrlich S. D., Kulakauskas S., Lapidus A., Goltsman E., Mazur M.. other authors 2004; Complete sequence and comparative genome analysis of the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus . Nat Biotechnol22:1554–1558[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Cheng J., Guffanti A. A., Krulwich T. A.. 1997; A two-gene ABC-type transport system that extrudes Na+ in Bacillus subtilis is induced by ethanol or protonophore. Mol Microbiol23:1107–1120[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Doan T., Servant P., Tojo S., Yamaguchi H., Lerondel G., Yoshida K., Fujita Y., Aymerich S.. 2003; The Bacillus subtilis ywkA gene encodes a malic enzyme and its transcription is activated by the YufL/YufM two-component system in response to malate. Microbiology149:2331–2343[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Fabret C., Feher V. A., Hoch J. A.. 1999; Two-component signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis : how one organism sees its world. J Bacteriol181:1975–1983
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Fukuchi K., Kasahara Y., Asai K., Kobayashi K., Moriya S., Ogasawara N.. 2000; The essential two-component regulatory system encoded by yycF and yycG modulates expression of the ftsAZ operon in Bacillus subtilis . Microbiology146:1573–1583
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Guilfoile P. G., Hutchinson C. R.. 1991; A bacterial analog of the mdr gene of mammalian tumor cells is present in Streptomyces peucetius , the producer of daunorubicin and doxorubicin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A88:8553–8557[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hayashi K., Ohsawa T., Kobayashi K., Ogasawara N., Ogura M.. 2005; The H2O2 stress-responsive regulator PerR positively regulates srfA expression in Bacillus subtilis . J Bacteriol187:6659–6667[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Hayashi K., Kensuke T., Kobayashi K., Ogasawara N., Ogura M.. 2006; Bacillus subtilis RghR (YvaN) represses rapG and rapH , which encode inhibitors of expression of the srfA operon. Mol Microbiol59:1714–1729[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hyyrylainen H. L., Bolhuis A., Darmon E., Muukkonen L., Koski P., Vitikainen M., Sarvas M., Pragai Z., Bron S.. other authors 2001; A novel two-component regulatory system in Bacillus subtilis for the survival of severe secretion stress. Mol Microbiol41:1159–1172
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Joseph P., Fichant G., Quentin Y., Denizot F.. 2002; Regulatory relationships of two-component and ABC transport systems and clustering of their genes in the Bacillus/Clostridium group suggest a functional link between them. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol5:503–513
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Joseph P., Guiseppi A., Sorokin A., Denizot F.. 2004; Characterization of the Bacillus subtilis YxdJ response regulator as the inducer of expression for the cognate ABC transporter YxdLM. Microbiology150:2609–2617[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Kobayashi K., Ogura M., Yamaguchi H., Yoshida K., Ogasawara N., Tanaka T., Fujita Y.. 2001; The comprehensive DNA microarray analysis of Bacillus subtilis two-component regulatory systems. J Bacteriol183:7365–7370[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Kunst F., Ogasawara N., Moszer I., Albertini A. M., Alloni G., Azevedo V., Bertero M. G., Bessieres P., Bolotin A.. other authors 1997; The complete genome sequence of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis . Nature390:249–256[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Mascher T., Zimmer S. L., Smith T. A., Helmann J. D.. 2004; Antibiotic-inducible promoter regulated by the cell envelope stress-sensing two-component system LiaRS of Bacillus subtilis . Antimicrob Agents Chemother48:2888–2896[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Mukai K., Kawata M., Tanaka T.. 1990; Isolation and phosphorylation of the Bacillus subtilis degS and degU gene products. J Biol Chem265:20000–20006
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nikolskaya A. N., Galperin M. Y.. 2002; A novel type of conserved DNA-binding domain in the transcriptional regulators of the AlgR/AgrA/LytR family. Nucleic Acids Res30:2453–2459[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ogura M., Tanaka T.. 1996; Transcription of Bacillus subtilis degR is σ D-dependent and suppressed by multicopy proB through σ D. J Bacteriol178:216–222
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ogura M., Ohshiro Y., Hirao S., Tanaka T.. 1997; A new Bacillus subtilis gene, med , encodes a positive regulator of comK . J Bacteriol179:6244–6253
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ogura M., Yamaguchi H., Yoshida K., Fujita Y., Tanaka T.. 2001; DNA microarray analysis of Bacillus subtilis DegU, ComA and PhoP regulons: an approach to comprehensive analysis of B. subtilis two-component regulatory systems. Nucleic Acids Res29:3804–3813[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ogura M., Shimane K., Asai K., Ogasawara N., Tanaka T.. 2003; Binding of response regulator DegU to the aprE promoter is inhibited by RapG, which is counteracted by extracellular PhrG in Bacillus subtilis . Mol Microbiol49:1685–1697[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Ohki R., Giyanto, Tateno K., Masuyama W., Moriya S., Kobayashi K., Ogasawara N.. 2003; The BceRS two-component regulatory system induces expression of the bacitracin transporter, BceAB, in Bacillus subtilis . Mol Microbiol49:1135–1144[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Padan E., Schuldiner S.. 1994; Molecular physiology of Na+/H+ antiporters, key transporters in circulation of Na+ and H+ in cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1185;129–151[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Reizer J., Reizer A., Saier M. H., Jr.. 1992; A new subfamily of bacterial ABC-type transport systems catalyzing export of drugs and carbohydrates. Prot Sci1:1326–1332[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Satomura T., Shimura D., Asai K., Sadaie Y., Hirooka K., Fujita Y.. 2005; Enhancement of glutamine utilization in Bacillus subtilis through the GlnK–GlnL two-component regulatory system. J Bacteriol187:4813–4821[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Schilling C. H., Held L., Torre M., Saier M. H.. 2000; grasp-dna: a web application to screen prokaryotic genomes for specific DNA-binding sites and repeat motifs. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol2:495–500
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Serizawa M., Sekiguchi J.. 2005; The Bacillus subtilis YdfHI two-component system regulates the transcription of ydfJ , a member of the RND superfamily. Microbiology151:1769–1778[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Shimane K., Ogura M.. 2004; Mutational analysis of the helix–turn–helix region of Bacillus subtilis response regulator DegU, and identification of cis -acting sequences for DegU in the aprE and comK promoters. J Biochem136:387–397[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Stock A. M., Robinson V. L., Goudreau P. N.. 2000; Two-component signal transduction. Annu Rev Biochem69:183–215[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Stragier P., Bonamy C., Karmazyn-Campelli C.. 1988; Processing of a sporulation sigma factor in Bacillus subtilis : how morphological structure could control gene expression. Cell52:697–704[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Tanaka K., Kobayashi K., Ogasawara N.. 2003; The Bacillus subtilis YufLM two-component system regulates the expression of the malate transporters MaeN (YufR) and YflS, and is essential for utilization of malate in minimal medium. Microbiology149:2317–2329[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Vagner V., Dervyn E., Ehrlich S. D.. 1998; A vector for systematic gene inactivation in Bacillus subtilis . Microbiology144:3097–3104[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Yamamoto H., Murata M., Sekiguchi J.. 2000; The CitST two-component system regulates the expression of the Mg-citrate transporter in Bacillus subtilis . Mol Microbiol37:898–912[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Yoshida K.-I., Kobayashi K., Miwa Y., Kang C.-M., Matsunaga M., Yamaguchi H., Tojo S., Yamamoto M., Nishi R.. other authors 2001; Combined transcriptome and proteome analysis as a powerful approach to study genes under glucose repression in Bacillus subtilis . Nucleic Acids Res29:683–692[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/003673-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.2006/003673-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most cited this month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error