1887

Abstract

Sixteen yeasts with sequenced genomes belonging to the ascomycete subphyla Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina were assayed for their ability to utilize a variety of primary, secondary, tertiary and quartenary aliphatic amines as nitrogen sources. The results support a previously proposed pathway of quaternary amine catabolism whereby glycine betaine is first converted into choline, which is then cleaved to release trimethylamine, followed by stepwise demethylation of trimethylamine to release free ammonia. There were only a few instances of utilization of -methylated glycine species (sarcosine and ,-dimethylglycine), which suggests that this pathway is not intact in any of the species tested. The ability to utilize choline as a sole nitrogen source correlated strongly with the presence of a putative Rieske non-haem iron protein homologous to bacterial ring-hydroxylating oxygenases and plant choline monooxygenases. Deletion of the gene encoding the Rieske non-haem iron protein in the yeast abolished its ability to utilize choline as the sole nitrogen source, but did not affect its ability to use methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, ethylamine, diethylamine, ethanolamine or glycine as nitrogen sources. The gene was named for putative choline monooxygenase 1. A bioinformatic survey of eukaryotic genomes showed that homologues are found throughout the eukaryotic domain.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Swedish research council for environment, agricultural sciences and spatial planning (FORMAS)
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2014-05-01
2021-05-19
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