1887

Abstract

is a Gram-positive bacterium that is indigenous to the oral cavity. , a primary colonizer of the oral cavity, serves as a tether for the attachment of other oral pathogens. The colonization of microbes on the tooth surface forms dental plaque, which can lead to the onset of periodontal disease. We examined a comprehensive mutant library to identify genes related to cellular chain length and morphology using phase-contrast microscopy. A number of hypothetical genes related to the cellular chain length were identified in this study. Genes related to the cellular chain length were analysed along with clusters of orthologous groups (COG) for gene functions. It was discovered that the highest proportion of COG functions related to cellular chain length was ‘cell division and chromosome separation’. However, different COG functions were also found to be related with altered cellular chain length. This suggested that different genes related with multiple mechanisms contribute to the cellular chain length in SK36.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • National Institutes of Health (Award R01DE023078 and R01DE018138)
  • Virginia Commonwealth University Presidential Research
  • Incentive Program (Award 144602-3)
Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.071688-0
2014-02-01
2021-07-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/160/2/307.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.071688-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahmed R., Hassall T., Morland B., Gray J. ( 2003). Viridans streptococcus bacteremia in children on chemotherapy for cancer: an underestimated problem. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 20:439–444[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Cefalo A. D., Broadbent J. R., Welker D. L. ( 2011). Protein-protein interactions among the components of the biosynthetic machinery responsible for exopolysaccharide production in Streptococcus thermophilus MR-1C. J Appl Microbiol 110:801–812 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chen L., Ge X., Dou Y., Wang X., Patel J. R., Xu P. ( 2011). Identification of hydrogen peroxide production-related genes in Streptococcus sanguinis and their functional relationship with pyruvate oxidase. Microbiology 157:13–20 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Dalia A. B., Weiser J. N. ( 2011). Minimization of bacterial size allows for complement evasion and is overcome by the agglutinating effect of antibody. Cell Host Microbe 10:486–496 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Henriques M. X., Rodrigues T., Carido M., Ferreira L., Filipe S. R. ( 2011). Synthesis of capsular polysaccharide at the division septum of Streptococcus pneumoniae is dependent on a bacterial tyrosine kinase. Mol Microbiol 82:515–534 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Higgins M. L., Pooley H. M., Shockman G. D. ( 1970). Site of initiation of cellular autolysis in Streptococcus faecalis as seen by electron microscopy. J Bacteriol 103:504–512[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Jensen S. O., Thompson L. S., Harry E. J. ( 2005). Cell division in Bacillus subtilis: FtsZ and FtsA association is Z-ring independent, and FtsA is required for efficient midcell Z-ring assembly. J Bacteriol 187:6536–6544 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Kilian M., Holmgren K. ( 1981). Ecology and nature of immunoglobulin A1 protease-producing streptococci in the human oral cavity and pharynx. Infect Immun 31:868–873[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kilian M., Mikkelsen L., Henrichsen J. ( 1989). Taxonomic study of viridans streptococci: description of Streptococcus gordonii sp. nov. and emended descriptions of Streptococcus sanguis (White and Niven 1946), Streptococcus oralis (Bridge and Sneath 1982), and Streptococcus mitis (Andrewes and Horder 1906). Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:471–484 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kolenbrander P. E. ( 2000). Oral microbial communities: biofilms, interactions, and genetic systems. Annu Rev Microbiol 54:413–437 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kolenbrander P. E., London J. ( 1993). Adhere today, here tomorrow: oral bacterial adherence. J Bacteriol 175:3247–3252[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Lara B., Rico A. I., Petruzzelli S., Santona A., Dumas J., Biton J., Vicente M., Mingorance J., Massidda O. ( 2005). Cell division in cocci: localization and properties of the Streptococcus pneumoniae FtsA protein. Mol Microbiol 55:699–711 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Luo F., Lizano S., Banik S., Zhang H., Bessen D. E. ( 2008). Role of Mga in group A streptococcal infection at the skin epithelium. Microb Pathog 45:217–224 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Murchison H., Larrimore S., Hull S., Curtiss R. III ( 1982). Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus mutans mutants with altered cellular morphology or chain length. Infect Immun 38:282–291[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Nakano K., Fujita K., Nishimura K., Nomura R., Ooshima T. ( 2005). Contribution of biofilm regulatory protein A of Streptococcus mutans to systemic virulence. Microbes Infect 7:1246–1255 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Sand O., Gingras M., Beck N., Hall C., Trun N. ( 2003). Phenotypic characterization of overexpression or deletion of the Escherichia coli crcA, cspE and crcB genes. Microbiology 149:2107–2117 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Socransky S. S., Manganiello A. D., Propas D., Oram V., Van Houte J. ( 1977). Bacteriological studies of developing supragingival dental plaque. J Periodontal Res 12:90–106 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Szwedziak P., Wang Q., Freund S. M., Löwe J. ( 2012). FtsA forms actin-like protofilaments. EMBO J 31:2249–2260 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Tatusov R. L., Natale D. A., Garkavtsev I. V., Tatusova T. A., Shankavaram U. T., Rao B. S., Kiryutin B., Galperin M. Y., Fedorova N. D., Koonin E. V. ( 2001). The COG database: new developments in phylogenetic classification of proteins from complete genomes. Nucleic Acids Res 29:22–28 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Thibodeau E. A., Ford C. M. ( 1991). Chain formation and de-chaining in Streptococcus sobrinus SL-1. Oral Microbiol Immunol 6:313–315 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Truper H., De’clari L. ( 1997). Taxonomic note: necessary corrections of specific epithets formed as substantives (nouns) “in apposition”. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:908–909 [View Article]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Turner L. S., Kanamoto T., Unoki T., Munro C. L., Wu H., Kitten T. ( 2009). Comprehensive evaluation of Streptococcus sanguinis cell wall-anchored proteins in early infective endocarditis. Infect Immun 77:4966–4975 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wang H. C., Gayda R. C. ( 1990). High-level expression of the FtsA protein inhibits cell septation in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol 172:4736–4740[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Wen Z. T., Burne R. A. ( 2002). Functional genomics approach to identifying genes required for biofilm development by Streptococcus mutans . Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1196–1203 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Xu P., Alves J. M., Kitten T., Brown A., Chen Z., Ozaki L. S., Manque P., Ge X., Serrano M. G. & other authors ( 2007). Genome of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis . J Bacteriol 189:3166–3175 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Xu P., Ge X., Chen L., Wang X., Dou Y., Xu J. Z., Patel J. R., Stone V., Trinh M. & other authors ( 2011). Genome-wide essential gene identification in Streptococcus sanguinis. . Sci Rep 1:125 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Zapun A., Vernet T., Pinho M. G. ( 2008). The different shapes of cocci. FEMS Microbiol Rev 32:345–360 [View Article][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.071688-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.071688-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 1

PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error