1887

Abstract

O antigens are polysaccharides consisting of repeat units of three to eight sugars, generally assembled by genes in a discrete O antigen gene cluster. produces 46 forms of O antigen, and most of the variation is determined by genes in the gene cluster. However in some cases the structures are modified by enzymes encoded outside of the gene cluster, and several such modifications have been reported for group E, some with the genes on bacteriophages and one gene at a distant chromosomal site. We identified the enzyme, WbaK, that is responsible for -acetylating the subgroup E1 O antigen, and found that the gene is located just downstream of the gene cluster as currently known. The gene appears to have been imported by a recombination event that also replaced the last 37 bp of the gene, indicating that homologous recombination was involved. Some of the group E strains we studied must have the original gene cluster, as they lack and the sequence downstream of is very similar to that in several other O antigen gene clusters. In effect the gene cluster was extended by one gene in subgroup E1. It appears that a function that is usually encoded by a gene outside of the gene cluster has been added to the gene cluster, in this case giving an example of how such gene clusters can evolve.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.069823-0
2013-11-01
2019-10-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/159/11/2316.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.069823-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Brown P. K. , Romana L. K. , Reeves P. R. . ( 1991; ). Cloning of the rfb gene cluster of a group C2 Salmonella strain: comparison with the rfb regions of groups B and D. . Mol Microbiol 5:, 1873–1881. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Curd H. , Liu D. , Reeves P. R. . ( 1998; ). Relationships among the O-antigen gene clusters of Salmonella enterica groups B, D1, D2, and D3. . J Bacteriol 180:, 1002–1007.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Datsenko K. A. , Wanner B. L. . ( 2000; ). One-step inactivation of chromosomal genes in Escherichia coli K-12 using PCR products. . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:, 6640–6645. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Ewing W. H. . ( 1986; ). Edwards and Ewing's identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, , 4th edn.. NY:: Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc;.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Feng L. , Senchenkova S. N. , Yang J. , Shashkov A. S. , Tao J. , Guo H. , Zhao G. , Knirel Y. A. , Reeves P. , Wang L. . ( 2004; ). Structural and genetic characterization of the Shigella boydii type 13 O antigen. . J Bacteriol 186:, 383–392. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Grimont P. A. D. , Weill F. X. . ( 2007; ). Antigenic Formulae of the Salmonella Serovars, , 9th edn.. Paris:: WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Salmonella, Institut Pasteur;.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Guibourdenche M. , Roggentin P. , Mikoleit M. , Fields P. I. , Bockemühl J. , Grimont P. A. , Weill F. X. . ( 2010; ). Supplement 2003-2007 (no. 47) to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme. . Res Microbiol 161:, 26–29. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Hellerqvist C. G. , Lindberg B. , Pilotti A. , Lindberg A. A. , Lamvik A. , Sunde E. , Sørensen N. A. . ( 1970; ). Structural studies on the O-specific side-chains of the cell-wall lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella strasbourg . . Acta Chem Scand 24:, 1168–1174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Hong Y. , Cunneen M. M. , Reeves P. R. . ( 2012; ). The Wzx translocases for Salmonella enterica O-antigen processing have unexpected serotype specificity. . Mol Microbiol 84:, 620–630. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kropinski A. M. , Kovalyova I. V. , Billington S. J. , Patrick A. N. , Butts B. D. , Guichard J. A. , Pitcher T. J. , Guthrie C. C. , Sydlaske A. D. et al. ( 2007; ). The genome of epsilon15, a serotype-converting, Group E1 Salmonella enterica-specific bacteriophage. . Virology 369:, 234–244. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. L’vov V. L. , Iakovlev A. P. , Shashkov A. S. . ( 1989; ). [Study of the structure of O-specific polysaccharide of Salmonella anatum using 1H- and 13C-NMR-spectroscopy]. . Bioorg Khim 15:, 1660–1663 (in Russian).[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Liu D. , Lindqvist L. , Reeves P. R. . ( 1995; ). Transferases of O-antigen biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica: dideoxyhexosyltransferases of groups B and C2 and acetyltransferase of group C2. . J Bacteriol 177:, 4084–4088.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Mäkelä P. H. , Stocker B. A. D. . ( 1984; ). Genetics of lipopolysaccharide. . In Handbook of Endotoxin, pp. 59–137. Edited by Rietschel E. T. . . Amsterdam:: Elsevier;.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. McConnell M. R. , Oakes K. R. , Patrick A. N. , Mills D. M. . ( 2001; ). Two functional O-polysaccharide polymerase wzy (rfc) genes are present in the rfb gene cluster of Group E1 Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum. . FEMS Microbiol Lett 199:, 235–240. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. McGrath B. C. , Osborn M. J. . ( 1991; ). Localization of the terminal steps of O-antigen synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium . . J Bacteriol 173:, 649–654.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Punta M. , Coggill P. C. , Eberhardt R. Y. , Mistry J. , Tate J. , Boursnell C. , Pang N. , Forslund K. , Ceric G. et al. ( 2012; ). The Pfam protein families database. . Nucleic Acids Res 40: (Database issue), D290–D301. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Robbins P. W. , Uchida T. . ( 1962; ). Studies on the chemical basis of the phage conversion of O-antigens in the E-group Salmonellae . . Biochemistry (Mosc) 1:, 323–335.[PubMed] [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Sambrook J. , Fritsch E. F. , Maniatis T. . ( 1989; ). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, , 2nd edn.. Cold Spring Harbor, NY:: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Silhavy T. J. , Kahne D. , Walker S. . ( 2010; ). The bacterial cell envelope. . Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:, a000414. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Stevenson G. , Neal B. , Liu D. , Hobbs M. , Packer N. H. , Batley M. , Redmond J. W. , Lindquist L. , Reeves P. R. . ( 1994; ). Structure of the O antigen of Escherichia coli K-12 and the sequence of its rfb gene cluster. . J Bacteriol 176:, 4144–4156.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Uchida T. , Robbins P. W. , Luria S. E. . ( 1963; ). Analysis of the serological determinant groups of the Salmonella E-group O-antigens. . Biochemistry (Mosc) 2:, 663–668. [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Valvano M. A. . ( 2003; ). Export of O-specific lipopolysaccharide. . Front Biosci 8:, s452–s471. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Wang L. , Romana L. K. , Reeves P. R. . ( 1992; ). Molecular analysis of a Salmonella enterica group E1 rfb gene cluster: O antigen and the genetic basis of the major polymorphism. . Genetics 130:, 429–443.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Westphal O. , Jann K. . ( 1965; ). Bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Extraction with phenol-water and further applications of the procedure. . In Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry vol. 5, pp. 83–91. Edited by Whistler R. L. . . New York:: Academic Press;.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Xiang S. H. , Hobbs M. , Reeves P. R. . ( 1994; ). Molecular analysis of the rfb gene cluster of a group D2 Salmonella enterica strain: evidence for its origin from an insertion sequence-mediated recombination event between group E and D1 strains. . J Bacteriol 176:, 4357–4365.[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.069823-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.069823-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Supplementary material 

PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error