1887

Abstract

Currently, the species is divided into four subspecies, subsp. , subsp. , subsp. and subsp. These classifications were based mainly on phenotypic identification methods and few studies have used genotypic identification methods. As a result, these subspecies have not yet been reliably delineated. In this study, the four subspecies of were discriminated by phenotype and by genotypic identification [amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)] methods. The MLST method developed here was based on the analysis of seven housekeeping genes (, , , , , and ). The MLST method had good discriminatory ability: the 41 strains of examined were divided into 34 sequence types, with 29 sequence types represented by only a single strain. The sequence types were divided into eight groups. These groups could be discriminated as representing different subspecies. The results of the AFLP and MLST analyses were consistent. The type strain of subsp. , YIT 0080, was clearly discriminated from the other strains currently classified as members of this subspecies, which were located close to strains of subsp. s. The MLST scheme developed in this study should be a useful tool for the identification of strains of to the subspecies level.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.043240-0
2011-03-01
2019-10-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/157/3/727.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.043240-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Cai, H., Rodríguez, B. T., Zhang, W., Broadbent, J. R. & Steele, J. L. ( 2007; ). Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from different ecological niches suggests frequent recombination and niche specificity. Microbiology 153, 2655–2665.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Chao, S.-H., Tomii, Y., Watanabe, K. & Tsai, Y.-C. ( 2008; ). Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in fermented brines used to make stinky tofu. Int J Food Microbiol 123, 134–141.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. de las Rivas, B., Marcobal, A. & Muñoz, R. ( 2006; ). Development of a multilocus sequence typing method for analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Microbiology 152, 85–93.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Dellaglio, F., Felis, G. E., Castioni, A., Torriani, S. & Germond, J. E. ( 2005; ). Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. indicus subsp. nov., isolated from Indian dairy products. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 401–404.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Diancourt, L., Passet, V., Chervaux, C., Garault, P., Smokvina, T. & Brisse, S. ( 2007; ). Multilocus sequence typing of Lactobacillus casei reveals a clonal population structure with low levels of homologous recombination. Appl Environ Microbiol 73, 6601–6611.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gatti, M., Fornasari, M. E. & Neviani, E. ( 2001; ). Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis by SDS-PAGE of cell-wall proteins. Lett Appl Microbiol 32, 352–356.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Germond, J. E., Lapierre, L., Delley, M., Mollet, B., Felis, G. E. & Dellaglio, F. ( 2003; ). Evolution of the bacterial species Lactobacillus delbrueckii: a partial genomic study with reflections on prokaryotic species concept. Mol Biol Evol 20, 93–104.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Giraffa, G., Lazzi, C., Gatti, M., Rossetti, L., Mora, D. & Neviani, E. ( 2003; ). Molecular typing of Lactobacillus delbrueckii of dairy origin by PCR-RFLP of protein-coding genes. Int J Food Microbiol 82, 163–172.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Giraffa, G., Andrighetto, C., Antonello, C., Gatti, M., Lazzi, C., Marcazzan, G., Lombardi, A. & Neviani, E. ( 2004; ). Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains of dairy origin. Int J Food Microbiol 91, 129–139.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Librado, P. & Rozas, J. ( 2009; ). DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics 25, 1451–1452.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Maiden, M. C., Bygraves, J. A., Feil, E., Morelli, G., Russell, J. E., Urwin, R., Zhang, Q., Zhou, J., Zurth, K. & other authors ( 1998; ). Multilocus sequence typing: a portable approach to the identification of clones within populations of pathogenic microorganisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 3140–3145.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Miteva, V., Boudakov, I., Ivanova-Stoyancheva, G., Marinova, B., Mitev, V. & Mengaud, J. ( 2001; ). Differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies by ribotyping and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). J Appl Microbiol 90, 909–918.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Picozzi, C., Bonacina, G., Vigentini, I. & Foschino, R. ( 2010; ). Genetic diversity in Italian Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains assessed by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses. Microbiology 156, 2035–2045.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Savelkoul, P. H. M., Aarts, H. J. M., de Haas, J., Dijkshoorn, L., Duim, B., Otsen, M., Rademaker, J. L., Schouls, L. & Lenstra, J. A. ( 1999; ). Amplified-fragment length polymorphism analysis: the state of an art. J Clin Microbiol 37, 3083–3091.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Sneath, P. H. A. & Sokal, R. R. ( 1973; ). Numerical Taxonomy. San Francisco, CA. : W. H. Freeman & Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Stackebrandt, E. & Ebers, J. ( 2006; ). Taxonomic parameters revisited: tarnished gold standards. Microbiol Today 33, 152–155.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. ( 2007; ). mega4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (mega) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24, 1596–1599.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Tanigawa, K., Kawabata, H. & Watanabe, K. ( 2010; ). Identification and typing of Lactococcus lactis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Appl Environ Microbiol 76, 4055–4062.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Tindall, B. J., Rosselló-Móra, R., Busse, H. J., Ludwig, W. & Kämpfer, P. ( 2010; ). Notes on the characterization of prokaryote strains for taxonomic purposes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60, 249–266.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Torriani, S., Zapparoli, G. & Dellaglio, F. ( 1999; ). Use of PCR-based methods for rapid differentiation of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. Appl Environ Microbiol 65, 4351–4356.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Vos, P., Hogers, R., Bleeker, M., Reijans, M., van de Lee, T., Hornes, M., Frijters, A., Pot, J. P., Peleman, J. & other authors ( 1995; ). AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res 23, 4407–4414.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Watanabe, K., Fujimoto, J., Sasamoto, M., Dugersuren, J., Tumursuh, T. & Demberel, S. ( 2008; ). Diversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in Airag and Tarag, traditional fermented milk products of Mongolia. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24, 1313–1325.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Watanabe, K., Fujimoto, J., Tomii, Y., Sasamoto, M., Makino, H., Kudo, Y. & Okada, S. ( 2009; ). Lactobacillus kisonensis sp. nov., Lactobacillus otakiensis sp. nov., Lactobacillus rapi sp. nov. and Lactobacillus sunkii sp. nov., heterofermentative species isolated from sunki, a traditional Japanese pickle. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59, 754–760.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Weiss, N., Schillinger, U. & Kandler, O. ( 1983; ). Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus leichmannii and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, subjective synonyms of Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and description of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis comb. nov. and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus comb. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol 4, 552–557.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.043240-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.043240-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 3, pp. 727 - 738

Polymorphic nucleotide sites found among the 41 study strains at the seven MLST gene loci. [ PDF] 71KB



PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error