1887

Abstract

The triggering of antibiotic production by various environmental stress molecules can be interpreted as bacteria's response to obtain increased fitness to putative danger, whereas the opposite situation – inhibition of antibiotic production – is more complicated to understand. Phenazines enable species to eliminate competitors for rhizosphere colonization and are typical virulence factors used for model studies. In the present work, we have investigated the negative effect of subinhibitory concentrations of NaCl, fusaric acid and two antibiotics on quorum-sensing-controlled phenazine production by . The selected stress factors inhibit phenazine synthesis despite sufficient cell density. Subsequently, we have identified connections between known genes of the phenazine-inducing cascade, including PsrA ( sigma regulator), RpoS (alternative sigma factor), Pip (phenazine inducing protein) and PhzI/PhzR (quorum-sensing system). Under all tested conditions, overexpression of Pip or PhzR restored phenazine production while overexpression of PsrA or RpoS did not. This forced restoration of phenazine production in strains overexpressing regulatory genes and significantly impairs growth and stress resistance; this is particularly severe with overexpression. We suggest a novel physiological explanation for the inhibition of phenazine virulence factors in pseudomonas species responding to toxic compounds. We propose that switching off phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) synthesis by attenuating expression would favour processes required for survival. In our model, this ‘decision’ point for promoting PCN production or stress resistance is located downstream of and just above . However, a test with the stress factor rifampicin shows no significant inhibition of Pip production, suggesting that stress factors may also target other and so far unknown protagonists of the PCN signalling cascade.

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2011-02-01
2019-10-17
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