1887

Abstract

In this paper, we describe the regulatory roles of VisN, VisR and Rem in the expression of flagellar, motility and chemotaxis genes in biovar strains VF39SM and 3841. Individual mutations in the genes encoding these proteins resulted in a loss of motility and an absence of flagella, indicating that these regulatory genes are essential for flagellar synthesis and function. Transcriptional experiments involving –gene fusions in wild-type and mutant backgrounds were performed to identify the genes under VisN/R and Rem regulation. Results showed that the chemotaxis and motility genes of could be separated into two groups: one group under VisN/R-Rem regulation and another group that is independent of this regulation. VisN and VisR regulate the expression of , while Rem positively regulates the expression of , , , , , , and . All of these genes except are located within the main motility and chemotaxis gene cluster of . Other chemotaxis and motility genes, which are found outside of the main motility gene cluster ( operon, for VF39SM, and ) or are plasmid-borne ( and ), are not part of the VisN/R-Rem regulatory cascade. In addition, all genes exhibited the same regulation pattern in 3841 and in VF39SM, except and . is not regulated by VisN/R-Rem in 3841 but it is repressed by Rem in VF39SM. is under VisN/R-Rem regulation in 3841, but not in VF39SM. A kinetics experiment demonstrated that a subset of the flagellar genes is continuously expressed in all growth phases, indicating the importance of continuous motility for under free-living conditions. On the other hand, motility is repressed under symbiotic conditions. Nodulation experiments showed that the transcriptional activators VisN and Rem are dramatically downregulated in the nodules, suggesting that the symbiotic downregulation of motility-related genes could be mediated by repressing the expression of VisN/R and Rem.

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2010-06-01
2020-01-20
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