1887

Abstract

The type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) induces cytotoxicity in mammalian epithelial cells. We characterized the cell death phenotype in both epithelial (HeLa) and monocytic (U937) cell lines following infection with . Using a combination of the wild-type strain and gene knockouts, we confirmed that strain NY-4 was able to induce cell death in both cell lines via a T3SS1-dependent mechanism. Bacterial contact, but not internalization, was required for T3SS1-induced cytotoxicity. The mechanism of cell death involves formation of a pore structure on the surface of infected HeLa and U937 cells, as demonstrated by cellular swelling, uptake of cell membrane-impermeable dye and protection of cytotoxicity by osmoprotectant (PEG3350). Western blot analysis showed that poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) was not cleaved and remained in its full-length active form. This result was evident for seven different strains. -induced cytotoxicity was not inhibited by addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[-methyl]-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) or the caspase-1 inhibitor -acetyl-tyrosyl-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-aldehyde (Ac-YVAD-CHO); thus, caspases were not involved in T3SS1-induced cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation was not evident following infection and autophagic vacuoles were not observed after monodansylcadaverine staining. We conclude that T3SS1 of strain NY-4 induces a host cell death primarily via oncosis rather than apoptosis, pyroptosis or autophagy.

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2009-03-01
2019-10-18
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