1887

Abstract

Patulin is an acetate-derived tetraketide mycotoxin produced by several fungal species, especially , and species. The health risks due to patulin consumption by humans have led many countries to regulate it in human food. Previous studies have shown the involvement of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in the hydroxylation of two precursors of patulin, -cresol and -hydroxybenzylalcohol. In the present study, two cytochrome P450 genes were identified in the genome sequence of , a patulin-producing species. Both mRNAs were strongly co-expressed during patulin production. CYP619C2, encoded by the first gene, consists of 529 aa, while the second cytochrome, CYP619C3, consists of 524 aa. The coding sequences were used to perform the heterologous expression of functional enzymes in . The bioconversion assays showed that CYP619C3 catalysed the hydroxylation of -cresol to yield -hydroxybenzyl alcohol. CYP619C2 catalysed the hydroxylation of -hydroxybenzyl alcohol and -cresol to gentisyl alcohol and 2,5-dihydroxytoluene (toluquinol), respectively. Except for the last compound, all enzyme products are known precursors of patulin. Taken together, these data strongly suggest the involvement of CYP619C2 and CYP619C3 in the biosynthesis of patulin. CYP619C2 and CYP619C3 are located near to two other genes involved in patulin biosynthesis, namely the 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase () and isoepoxydon dehydrogenase () genes. The current data associated with an analysis of the sequence of suggest the presence of a cluster of 15 genes involved in patulin biosynthesis.

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2009-05-01
2019-12-07
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