1887

Abstract

, a biofilm-forming Gram-positive bacterium that resides in the human oral cavity, is considered to be the primary aetiological agent of human dental caries. A cell-envelope stress-sensing histidine kinase, LiaS, is considered to be important for expression of virulence factors such as glucan-binding protein C and mutacin production. In this study, a mutant was subjected to phenotypic microarray (PM) analysis of about 2000 phenotypes, including utilization of various carbon, nitrogen, phosphate and sulfur sources; osmolytes; metabolic inhibitors; and susceptibility to toxic compounds, including several types of antibiotics. Compared to the parental strain UA159, the mutant strain (IBS148) was more tolerant to various inhibitors that target protein synthesis, DNA synthesis and cell-wall biosynthesis. Some of the key findings of the PM analysis were confirmed in independent growth studies and by using antibiotic discs and E-test strips for susceptibility testing.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.023077-0
2009-01-01
2019-10-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/155/1/61.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.023077-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Ahn, S. J., Wen, Z. T. & Burne, R. A. ( 2006; ). Multilevel control of competence development and stress tolerance in Streptococcus mutans UA159. Infect Immun 74, 1631–1642.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ajdic, D., McShan, W. M., McLaughlin, R. E., Savić, G., Chang, J., Carson, M. B., Primeaux, C., Tian, R., Kenton, S. & other authors ( 2002; ). Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 14434–14439.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Banas, J. A. & Vickerman, M. M. ( 2003; ). Glucan-binding proteins of the oral streptococci. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 14, 89–99.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Biswas, S. & Biswas, I. ( 2005; ). Role of HtrA in surface protein expression and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Infect Immun 73, 6923–6934.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Biswas, S. & Biswas, I. ( 2006; ). Regulation of the glucosyltransferase (gtfBC) operon by CovR in Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol 188, 988–998.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Biswas, I., Drake, L. & Biswas, S. ( 2007; ). Regulation of gbpC expression in Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol 189, 6521–6531.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Biswas, I., Drake, L., Erkina, D. & Biswas, S. ( 2008; ). Involvement of sensor kinases in the stress tolerance response of Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol 190, 68–77.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bochner, B. R., Gadzinski, P. & Panomitros, E. ( 2001; ). Phenotype microarrays for high-throughput phenotypic testing and assay of gene function. Genome Res 11, 1246–1255.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Butcher, B. G., Lin, Y. P. & Helmann, J. D. ( 2007; ). The yydFGHIJ operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes a peptide that induces the LiaRS two-component system. J Bacteriol 189, 8616–8625.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Carlsson, J. & Hamilton, I. R. ( 1994; ). Metabolic Activity of Oral Bacteria, 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
  11. Chong, P., Drake, L. & Biswas, I. ( 2008; ). LiaS regulates virulence factor expression in Streptococcus mutans. Infect Immun 76, 3093–3099.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Dalton, T. L. & Scott, J. R. ( 2004; ). CovS inactivates CovR and is required for growth under conditions of general stress in Streptococcus pyogenes. J Bacteriol 186, 3928–3937.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. El-Sharoud, W. M. ( 2005; ). Two-component signal transduction systems as key players in stress responses of lactic acid bacteria. Sci Prog 88, 203–228.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Fabret, C., Feher, V. A. & Hoch, J. A. ( 1999; ). Two-component signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis: how one organism sees its world. J Bacteriol 181, 1975–1983.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Fukushima, T., Szurmant, H., Kim, E. J., Perego, M. & Hoch, J. A. ( 2008; ). A sensor histidine kinase co-ordinates cell wall architecture with cell division in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol 69, 621–632.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gardete, S., Wu, S. W., Gill, S. & Tomasz, A. ( 2006; ). Role of VraSR in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic-induced stress response in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50, 3424–3434.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Haas, W., Kaushal, D., Sublett, J., Obert, C. & Tuomanen, E. I. ( 2005; ). Vancomycin stress response in a sensitive and a tolerant strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Bacteriol 187, 8205–8210.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hamada, S. & Slade, H. D. ( 1980; ). Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. Microbiol Rev 44, 331–384.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Higgins, M. L., Daneo-Moore, L., Boothby, D. & Shockman, G. D. ( 1974; ). Effect of inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid and protein synthesis on the direction of cell wall growth in Streptococcus faecalis. J Bacteriol 118, 681–692.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Huisman, O. & D'Ari, R. ( 1981; ). An inducible DNA replication-cell division coupling mechanism in E. coli. Nature 290, 797–799.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Idone, V., Brendtro, S., Gillespie, R., Kocaj, S., Peterson, E., Rendi, M., Warren, W., Michalek, S., Krastel, K. & other authors ( 2003; ). Effect of an orphan response regulator on Streptococcus mutans sucrose-dependent adherence and cariogenesis. Infect Immun 71, 4351–4360.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Jacobs-Wagner, C. ( 2004; ). Regulatory proteins with a sense of direction: cell cycle signalling network in Caulobacter. Mol Microbiol 51, 7–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jenal, U. ( 2000; ). Signal transduction mechanisms in Caulobacter crescentus development and cell cycle control. FEMS Microbiol Rev 24, 177–191.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Jordan, S., Junker, A., Helmann, J. D. & Mascher, T. ( 2006; ). Regulation of LiaRS-dependent gene expression in Bacillus subtilis: identification of inhibitor proteins, regulator binding sites, and target genes of a conserved cell envelope stress-sensing two-component system. J Bacteriol 188, 5153–5166.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Jordan, S., Rietkotter, E., Strauch, M. A., Kalamorz, F., Butcher, B. G., Helmann, J. D. & Mascher, T. ( 2007; ). LiaRS-dependent gene expression is embedded in transition state regulation in Bacillus subtilis. Microbiology 153, 2530–2540.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Jordan, S., Hutchings, M. I. & Mascher, T. ( 2008; ). Cell envelope stress response in Gram-positive bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev 32, 107–146.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kuramitsu, H. K. ( 1993; ). Virulence factors of mutans streptococci: role of molecular genetics. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 4, 159–176.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Kuroda, M., Kuroda, H., Oshima, T., Takeuchi, F., Mori, H. & Hiramatsu, K. ( 2003; ). Two-component system VraSR positively modulates the regulation of cell-wall biosynthesis pathway in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol 49, 807–821.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Lee, Y. S., Han, J. S., Jeon, Y. & Hwang, D. S. ( 2001; ). The arc two-component signal transduction system inhibits in vitro Escherichia coli chromosomal initiation. J Biol Chem 276, 9917–9923.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lemos, J. A., Abranches, J. & Burne, R. A. ( 2005; ). Responses of cariogenic streptococci to environmental stresses. Curr Issues Mol Biol 7, 95–107.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Li, Y. H., Lau, P. C., Tang, N., Svensater, G., Ellen, R. P. & Cvitkovitch, D. G. ( 2002; ). Novel two-component regulatory system involved in biofilm formation and acid resistance in Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol 184, 6333–6342.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Liu, G., Begg, K., Geddes, A. & Donachie, W. D. ( 2001; ). Transcription of essential cell division genes is linked to chromosome replication in Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol 40, 909–916.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Loesche, W. J. ( 1986; ). Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 50, 353–380.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Martinez, B., Zomer, A. L., Rodriguez, A., Kok, J. & Kuipers, O. P. ( 2007; ). Cell envelope stress induced by the bacteriocin Lcn972 is sensed by the lactococcal two-component system CesSR. Mol Microbiol 64, 473–486.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Mascher, T. ( 2006; ). Intramembrane-sensing histidine kinases: a new family of cell envelope stress sensors in Firmicutes bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett 264, 133–144.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Mascher, T., Margulis, N. G., Wang, T., Ye, R. W. & Helmann, J. D. ( 2003; ). Cell wall stress responses in Bacillus subtilis: the regulatory network of the bacitracin stimulon. Mol Microbiol 50, 1591–1604.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Mascher, T., Zimmer, S. L., Smith, T. A. & Helmann, J. D. ( 2004; ). Antibiotic-inducible promoter regulated by the cell envelope stress-sensing two-component system LiaRS of Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48, 2888–2896.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Mascher, T., Helmann, J. D. & Unden, G. ( 2006; ). Stimulus perception in bacterial signal-transducing histidine kinases. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70, 910–938.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Patel, S. & Weaver, K. E. ( 2006; ). Addiction toxin Fst has unique effects on chromosome segregation and cell division in Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol 188, 5374–5384.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Tsuda, H., Yamashita, Y., Shibata, Y., Nakano, Y. & Koga, T. ( 2002; ). Genes involved in bacitracin resistance in Streptococcus mutans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46, 3756–3764.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Ullman, R. F., Miller, S. J., Strampfer, M. J. & Cunha, B. A. ( 1988; ). Streptococcus mutans endocarditis: report of three cases and review of the literature. Heart Lung 17, 209–212.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Verneuil, N., Sanguinetti, M., Le Breton, Y., Posteraro, B., Fadda, G., Auffray, Y., Hartke, A. & Giard, J. C. ( 2004; ). Effects of the Enterococcus faecalis hypR gene encoding a new transcriptional regulator on oxidative stress response and intracellular survival within macrophages. Infect Immun 72, 4424–4431.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Yin, S., Daum, R. S. & Boyle-Vavra, S. ( 2006; ). VraSR two-component regulatory system and its role in induction of pbp2 and vraSR expression by cell wall antimicrobials in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50, 336–343.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Zhou, L., Lei, X. H., Bochner, B. R. & Wanner, B. L. ( 2003; ). Phenotype microarray analysis of Escherichia coli K-12 mutants with deletions of all two-component systems. J Bacteriol 185, 4956–4972.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.023077-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.023077-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

vol. , part 1, pp. 61 - 68

Results of testing the mutant and its wild-type parental strain UA159 [ PDF] (24 kb)



PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error