1887

Abstract

is considered a primary pathogen for human dental caries. Its ability to produce a variety of peptide antibiotics called mutacins may play an important role in its invasion and establishment in the dental biofilm. strain UA140 produces two types of mutacins, the lantibiotic mutacin I and the non-lantibiotic mutacin IV. In a previous study, we constructed a random insertional-mutation library to screen for genes involved in regulating mutacin I production, and found 25 genes/operons that have a positive effect on mutacin I production. In this study, we continued our previous work to identify genes that are negatively involved in mutacin I production. By using a high-phosphate brain heart infusion agar medium that inhibited mutacin I production of the wild-type, we isolated 77 clones that consistently produced mutacin I under repressive conditions. From the 34 clones for which we were able to obtain a sequence, 17 unique genes were identified. These genes encompass a variety of functional groups, including central metabolism, surface binding and sugar transport, and unknown functions. Some of the 17 mutations were further characterized and shown to increase mutacin gene expression during growth when the gene is usually not expressed in the wild-type. These results further demonstrate an intimate and intricate connection between mutacin production and the overall cellular homeostasis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.021303-0
2009-02-01
2019-12-09
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/155/2/551.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.021303-0&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Abranches, J., Candella, M. M., Wen, Z. T., Baker, H. V. & Burne, R. A. ( 2006; ). Different roles of EIIABMan and EIIGlc in regulation of energy metabolism, biofilm development, and competence in Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol 188, 3748–3756.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Boyd, D. A., Cvitkovitch, D. G. & Hamilton, I. R. ( 1994; ). Sequence and expression of the genes for HPr (ptsH) and enzyme I (ptsI) of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase transport system from Streptococcus mutans. Infect Immun 62, 1156–1165.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Chandu, D. & Nandi, D. ( 2003; ). PepN is the major aminopeptidase in Escherichia coli: insights on substrate specificity and role during sodium-salicylate-induced stress. Microbiology 149, 3437–3447.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Chandu, D., Kumar, A. & Nandi, D. ( 2003; ). PepN, the major Suc-LLVY-AMC-hydrolyzing enzyme in Escherichia coli, displays functional similarity with downstream processing enzymes in Archaea and eukarya. Implications in cytosolic protein degradation. J Biol Chem 278, 5548–5556.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Cvitkovitch, D. G., Boyd, D. A. & Hamilton, I. R. ( 1995; ). Regulation of sugar transport via the multiple sugar metabolism operon of Streptococcus mutans by the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system. J Bacteriol 177, 5704–5706.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Gharbi, S., Belaich, A., Murgier, M. & Lazdunski, A. ( 1985; ). Multiple controls exerted on in vivo expression of the pepN gene in Escherichia coli: studies with pepN-lacZ operon and protein fusion strains. J Bacteriol 163, 1191–1195.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Hamada, S. & Ooshima, T. ( 1975; ). Inhibitory spectrum of a bacteriocinlike substance (mutacin) produced by some strains of Streptococcus mutans. J Dent Res 54, 140–145.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. He, X., Wu, C., Yarbrough, D., Sim, L., Niu, G., Merritt, J., Shi, W. & Qi, F. ( 2008; ). The cia operon of Streptococcus mutans encodes a unique component required for calcium-mediated autoregulation. Mol Microbiol 70, 112–126.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Kreth, J., Merritt, J., Bordador, C., Shi, W. & Qi, F. ( 2004; ). Transcriptional analysis of mutacin I (mutA) gene expression in planktonic and biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans using fluorescent protein and glucuronidase reporters. Oral Microbiol Immunol 19, 252–256.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Kreth, J., Merritt, J., Shi, W. & Qi, F. ( 2005; ). Co-ordinated bacteriocin production and competence development: a possible mechanism for taking up DNA from neighbouring species. Mol Microbiol 57, 392–404.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kreth, J., Merritt, J., Zhu, L., Shi, W. & Qi, F. ( 2006; ). Cell density- and ComE-dependent expression of a group of mutacin and mutacin-like genes in Streptococcus mutans. FEMS Microbiol Lett 265, 11–17.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Loesche, W. J. ( 1986; ). Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 50, 353–380.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Park, Y., Yilmaz, O., Jung, I. Y. & Lamont, R. J. ( 2004; ). Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis genes specifically expressed in human gingival epithelial cells by using differential display reverse transcription-PCR. Infect Immun 72, 3752–3758.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Parrot, M., Charest, M. & Lavoie, M. C. ( 1989; ). Production of mutacin-like substances by Streptococcus mutans. Can J Microbiol 35, 366–372.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Parrot, M., Drean, M. F., Trehan, L. & Lavoie, M. C. ( 1990; ). Incidence of bacteriocinogeny among fresh isolates of Streptococcus mutans. Can J Microbiol 36, 507–509.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Qi, F., Chen, P. & Caufield, P. W. ( 2000; ). Purification and biochemical characterization of mutacin I from the group I strain of Streptococcus mutans, CH43, and genetic analysis of mutacin I biosynthesis genes. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 3221–3229.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Qi, F., Chen, P. & Caufield, P. W. ( 2001; ). The group I strain of Streptococcus mutans, UA140, produces both the lantibiotic mutacin I and a nonlantibiotic bacteriocin, mutacin IV. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 15–21.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Rawlings, N. D. & Barrett, A. J. ( 1995; ). Evolutionary families of metallopeptidases. Methods Enzymol 248, 183–228.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Sahl, H. G. & Bierbaum, G. ( 1998; ). Lantibiotics: biosynthesis and biological activities of uniquely modified peptides from gram-positive bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 52, 41–79.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Socransky, S. S., Haffajee, A. D., Cugini, M. A., Smith, C. & Kent, R. L., Jr ( 1998; ). Microbial complexes in subgingival plaque. J Clin Periodontol 25, 134–144.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Sugimoto, T., Kawasaki, T., Kato, T., Whittier, R. F., Shibata, D. & Kawamura, Y. ( 1992; ). cDNA sequence and expression of a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene from soybean. Plant Mol Biol 20, 743–747.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Tsang, P., Merritt, J., Nguyen, T., Shi, W. & Qi, F. ( 2005; ). Identification of genes associated with mutacin I production in Streptococcus mutans using random insertional mutagenesis. Microbiology 151, 3947–3955.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Tsang, P., Merritt, J., Shi, W. & Qi, F. ( 2006; ). IrvA-dependent and IrvA-independent pathways for mutacin gene regulation in Streptococcus mutans. FEMS Microbiol Lett 261, 231–234.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Vazquez-Tello, A., Whittier, R. F., Kawasaki, T., Sugimoto, T., Kawamura, Y. & Shibata, D. ( 1993; ). Sequence of a soybean (Glycine max L.) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNA. Plant Physiol 103, 1025–1026.[CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Weaver, C. A., Chen, Y. Y. & Burne, R. A. ( 2000; ). Inactivation of the ptsI gene encoding enzyme I of the sugar phosphotransferase system of Streptococcus salivarius: effects on growth and urease expression. Microbiology 146, 1179–1185.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.021303-0
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.021303-0
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplements

Primers used in this study [ PDF] (20 kb) Mutagenesis by single-crossover integration [ PDF] (29 kb) Strategies to create a double-crossover construct using 3-piece PCR ligation [ PDF] (25 kb)

PDF

Primers used in this study [ PDF] (20 kb) Mutagenesis by single-crossover integration [ PDF] (29 kb) Strategies to create a double-crossover construct using 3-piece PCR ligation [ PDF] (25 kb)

PDF

Primers used in this study [ PDF] (20 kb) Mutagenesis by single-crossover integration [ PDF] (29 kb) Strategies to create a double-crossover construct using 3-piece PCR ligation [ PDF] (25 kb)

PDF
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error