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Abstract

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a characteristic molecule of the outer leaflet of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane, which consists of lipid A, core oligosaccharide, and O antigen. The lipid A is embedded in outer membrane and provides an efficient permeability barrier, which is particularly important to reduce the permeability of antibiotics, toxic cationic metals, and antimicrobial peptides. LPS, an important modulator of innate immune responses ranging from localized inflammation to disseminated sepsis, displays a high level of structural and functional heterogeneity, which arise due to regulated differences in the acylation of the lipid A and the incorporation of non-stoichiometric modifications in lipid A and the core oligosaccharide. This review focuses on the current mechanistic understanding of the synthesis and assembly of the lipid A molecule and its most salient non-stoichiometric modifications.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • European Training Networks (Award BactiVax, MSCA-ITN-2019)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MiguelA Valvano
  • Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (Award VALVAN19G0)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MiguelA Valvano
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (Award BB/S0066281/1)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MiguelA Valvano
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (Award BB/T005807)
    • Principle Award Recipient: MiguelA Valvano
  • This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This article was made open access via a Publish and Read agreement between the Microbiology Society and the corresponding author’s institution.
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2022-04-08
2022-05-18
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