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Abstract

Bacterial nutrition is a fundamental aspect of pathogenesis. While the host environment is in principle nutrient-rich, hosts have evolved strategies to interfere with nutrient acquisition by pathogens. In turn, pathogens have developed mechanisms to circumvent these restrictions. Changing the availability of bioavailable metal ions is a common strategy used by hosts to limit bacterial replication. Macrophages and neutrophils withhold iron, manganese, and zinc ions to starve bacteria. Alternatively, they can release manganese, zinc, and copper ions to intoxicate microorganisms. Metals are essential micronutrients and participate in catalysis, macromolecular structure, and signalling. This review summarises our current understanding of how central carbon metabolism in pathogens adapts to local fluctuations in free metal ion concentrations. We focus on the transcriptomics and proteomics data produced in studies of the iron-sparing response in , the etiological agent of tuberculosis, and consequently generate a hypothetical model linking trehalose accumulation, succinate secretion and substrate-level phosphorylation in iron-starved . This review also aims to highlight a large gap in our knowledge of pathogen physiology: the interplay between metal homeostasis and central carbon metabolism, two cellular processes which are usually studied separately. Integrating metabolism and metal biology would allow the discovery of new weaknesses in bacterial physiology, leading to the development of novel and improved antibacterial therapies.

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2021-06-03
2022-01-24
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