1887

Abstract

This study detailed the responses of larvae to disseminated infection caused by co-infection with and . Doses of (1×10 larva) and (1×10 larva) were non-lethal in mono-infection but when combined significantly (<0.05) reduced larval survival at 24, 48 and 72 h relative to larvae receiving (2×10 larva) alone. Co-infected larvae displayed a significantly higher density of larva compared to larvae infected solely with . Co-infection resulted in dissemination throughout the host and the appearance of large nodules. Co-infection of larvae with and (2×10 larva) resulted in an increase in the density of circulating haemocytes compared to that in larvae infected with only . Proteomic analysis of co-infected larval haemolymph revealed increased abundance of proteins associated with immune responses to bacterial and fungal infection such as cecropin-A (+45.4-fold), recognition proteins [e.g. peptidoglycan-recognition protein LB (+14-fold)] and proteins associated with nodule formation [e.g. Hdd11 (+33.3-fold)]. A range of proteins were also decreased in abundance following co-infection, including apolipophorin (−62.4-fold), alpha-esterase 45 (−7.7-fold) and serine proteinase (−6.2-fold). Co-infection of larvae resulted in enhanced proliferation of compared to mono-infection and an immune response showing many similarities to the innate immune response of mammals to infection. The utility of larvae for studying polymicrobial infection is highlighted.

Funding
This study was supported by the:
  • Not Applicable , Science Foundation Ireland , (Award 12/RI/2346 (3).)
  • Kevin A. Kavanagh , Science Foundation Ireland , (Award 12/RC/2275_P2.)
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2020-02-18
2020-06-03
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