1887

Abstract

The presence and diversity of mycobacteria that are capable of survival in a harsh and adverse condition, such as hospital environments, have not been comprehensively studied. This study aimed to assess the frequency and diversity of mycobacteria in hospital soil and dust of a developing country using a combination of molecular and conventional methods. A total of 318 hospital dust and soil samples collected from 38 hospitals were analysed using standard protocols for characterization of mycobacteria. The conventional tests were used for preliminary identification and Runyon’s classification, the PCR amplification of the 65 gene and sequence analyses of 16SrRNA were applied for genus and species identification. In total, 28 samples (8.8 %) were positive for mycobacteria. The isolates included 33 mycobacteria species including 19 rapidly growing and 14 slowly growing organisms. The most prevalent species were and five isolates (15.1 %) each, four isolates (12.12 %) and and complex three isolates (9.1 %) each and two isolates (6 %) each. The remaining isolates consisted the single strains of eight various mycobacterium species, the results of our study revealed that soil and dust in hospitals can be the reservoir of mycobacteria. This reaffirms the fact that these organisms due to intrinsic resistance can persist in hospitals and create a threat to patient’s health, in particular to those who suffer from weakness of immunity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000857
2019-10-15
2019-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Cortez-Escalante JJ, Dos Santos AM, Garnica GdeC, Sarmento AL, Castro CNde et al. Mediastinitis and pericardial effusion in a patient with AIDS and disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection: a case report. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2012;45: 407– 409 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Piersimoni C. Nontuberculous mycobacteria infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;31: 397– 403 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Drummond WK, Kasperbauer SH. Nontuberculous mycobacteria: epidemiology and the impact on pulmonary and cardiac disease. Thorac Surg Clin 2019;29: 59– 64 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Larsson L-O, Bennet R, Eriksson M, Jönsson B, Ridell M. Nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases in humans Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) Elsevier; 2019; pp 101– 119
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Chang CT, Wang LY, Liao CY, Huang SP, Ct C. Identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria existing in tap water by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Appl Environ Microbiol 2002;68: 3159– 3161 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Le Dantec C, Duguet JP, Montiel A, Dumoutier N, Dubrou S et al. Chlorine disinfection of atypical mycobacteria isolated from a water distribution system. Appl Environ Microbiol 2002;68: 1025– 1032 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Falkinham JO, Iseman MD, de Haas P, van Soolingen D. Mycobacterium avium in a shower linked to pulmonary disease. J Water Health 2008;6: 209– 213 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. van Ingen J, de Lange WCM, Dekhuijzen PNR, Dekhuijzen PNR, Boeree MJ et al. Clinical relevance of Mycobacterium malmoense isolation in the Netherlands. European Respiratory Journal 2009;34: 926– 931 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Adjemian J, Olivier KN, Seitz AE, Holland SM, Prevots DR. Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in U.S. Medicare beneficiaries. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012;185: 881– 886 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Shin JH, Lee EJ, Lee HR, Ryu SM, Kim HR et al. Prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in a hospital environment. J Hosp Infect 2007;65: 143– 148 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Azadi D, Shojaei H, Pourchangiz M, Dibaj R, Davarpanah M et al. Species diversity and molecular characterization of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital water system of a developing country, Iran. Microb Pathog 2016;100: 62– 69 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bojalil L, Cerbon J, TRUJILLO A. Adansonian classification of mycobacteria. Microbiology 1962;28: 333– 346
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Zelazny AM, Root JM, Shea YR, Colombo RE, Shamputa IC et al. Cohort study of molecular identification and typing of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium massiliense, and Mycobacterium bolletii. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47: 1985– 1995 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Soini H, Musser JM. Molecular diagnosis of mycobacteria. Clin Chem 2001;47: 809– 814
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Schofield RK, Taylor AW. The measurement of soil Ph1. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1955;19: 164– 167 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Narang R, Narang P, Mendiratta DK. Isolation and identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria from water and soil in central India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2009;27: 247– 250 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Pitcher DG, Saunders NA, Owen RJ. Rapid extraction of bacterial genomic DNA with guanidium thiocyanate. Lett Appl Microbiol 1989;8: 151– 156 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Khan IUH, Yadav JS. Development of a single-tube, cell lysis-based, genus-specific PCR method for rapid identification of mycobacteria: optimization of cell lysis, PCR primers and conditions, and restriction pattern analysis. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42: 453– 457 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Shojaei H, Heidarieh P, Hashemi A, Feizabadi MM, Daei Naser A. Species identification of neglected nontuberculous mycobacteria in a developing country. Jpn J Infect Dis 2011;64: 265– 271
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Jeon YS, Chung H, Park S, Hur I, Lee JH et al. jPHYDIT: a JAVA-based integrated environment for molecular phylogeny of ribosomal RNA sequences. Bioinformatics 2005;21: 3171– 3173 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Stackebrandt E, Smida J. The phylogeny of the genus Mycobacterium as determined by 16s Rrna sequences, and development of DNA probes Biology of Actinomycetes Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press; 1988; pp 244– 250
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Moore JE, Kruijshaar ME, Ormerod LP, Drobniewski F, Abubakar I. Increasing reports of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 1995-2006. BMC Public Health 2010;10: 612 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Drage LA, Ecker PM, Orenstein R, Phillips PK, Edson RS. An outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae infections in tattoos. J Am Acad Dermatol 2010;62: 501– 506 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. López-Varela E, García-Basteiro AL, Santiago B, Wagner D, van Ingen J et al. Non-Tuberculous mycobacteria in children: muddying the waters of tuberculosis diagnosis. Lancet Respir Med 2015;3: 244– 256 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Wallace R J Jr GJ, Griffith DE, Olivier KN, Cook JL, Gordin F. Diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. this official statement of the American thoracic Society was Approved by the Board of directors, March 1997. Medical section of the American lung association. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;156: S1– 25 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Vaerewijck MJM, Huys G, Palomino JC, Swings J, Portaels F. Mycobacteria in drinking water distribution systems: ecology and significance for human health. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2005;29: 911– 934 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Primm TP, Lucero CA, Falkinham JO. Health impacts of environmental mycobacteria. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004;17: 98– 106 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Falkinham J. Ecology of nontuberculous Mycobacteria—Where do human infections come from?. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2013;34: 095– 102 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Falkinham JO. Environmental sources of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Clin Chest Med 2015;36: 35– 41 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Khan S, Shahnaz M, Jehan N, Rehman S, Shah MT et al. Drinking water quality and human health risk in Charsadda district, Pakistan. J Clean Prod 2013;60: 93– 101 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Whiley H, Keegan A, Giglio S, Bentham R. Mycobacterium avium complex--the role of potable water in disease transmission. J Appl Microbiol 2012;113: 223– 232 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Lai CC, Tan CK, Chou CH, Hsu HL, Liao CH et al. Increasing incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria, Taiwan, 2000–2008. Emerg Infect Dis 2010;16: 294– 296 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Carbonne A, Brossier F, Arnaud I, Bougmiza I, Caumes E et al. Outbreak of nontuberculous mycobacterial subcutaneous infections related to multiple mesotherapy injections. J Clin Microbiol 2009;47: 1961– 1964 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Wallace RJ, Brown BA, Griffith DE. Nosocomial OUTBREAKS/PSEUDO outbreaks caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 1998;52: 453– 490 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Ortiz A, Esteban J, Zamora N. Molecular identification by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum due to cross-contamination of clinical samples. J Med Microbiol 2007;56: 871– 872 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Fernandes Garcia de Carvalho N, Rodrigues Mestrinari AC, Brandão A, Souza Jorge L, Franco C et al. Hospital bronchoscopy-related pseudo-outbreak caused by a circulating Mycobacterium abscessus sub sp. massiliense. J Hosp Infect 2018;100: e138– e141 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Geadas Farias P, Gama F, Reis D, Alarico S, Empadinhas N et al. Hospital microbial surface colonization revealed during monitoring of Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 2017;110: 863– 876 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Azadi D, Dibaj R, Pourchangiz M, Daei-Naser A, Shojaei H. First report of isolation of Mycobacterium canariasense from hospital water supplies. Scand J Infect Dis 2014;46: 792– 796 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Azadi D, Shojaei H, Mobasherizadeh S, Naser AD. Screening, isolation and molecular identification of biodegrading mycobacteria from Iranian ecosystems and analysis of their biodegradation activity. AMB Express 2017;7: 180 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Tsukamura M, Mizuno S, Murata H, Nemoto H, Yugi H. A comparative study of mycobacteria from patients' room dusts and from sputa of tuberculous patients. source of pathogenic mycobacteria occurring in the sputa of tuberculous patients as casual isolates. Jpn J Microbiol 1974;18: 271– 277
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kettleson E, Kumar S, Reponen T, Vesper S, Méheust D et al. Stenotrophomonas, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces in home dust and air: associations with moldiness and other home/family characteristics. Indoor Air 2013;23: 387– 396 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. De Groote MA, Pace NR, Fulton K, Falkinham JO. Relationships between Mycobacterium isolates from patients with pulmonary mycobacterial infection and potting soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006;72: 7602– 7606 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Azadi D, Shojaei H, Pourchangiz M, Dibaj R, Davarpanah M et al. Species diversity and molecular characterization of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital water system of a developing country, Iran. Microb Pathog 2016;100: 62– 69 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Guevara-Patiño A, Sandoval de Mora M, Farreras A, Rivera-Olivero I, Fermin D et al. Soft tissue infection due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following acupuncture: a case report and review of the literature. J Infect Dev Ctries 2010;4: 521– 525 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Falsafi SBS, Feizabadi MM, Ali R, Khavari-Nejad AS, Sheikhi N et al. I solation and Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium fortuitum isolates from Environmental water and clinical samples at different regions of Iran. Bull Env Pharmacol Life Sci 2015;10: 63– 68
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Shojaei H, Hashemi A, Heidarieh P, Feizabadi MM, Ataei B et al. First report on isolation and molecular characterization of clinical Mycobacterium setense isolates in Asia. Jpn J Infect Dis 2011;64: 234– 236
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Tsitko I, Rahkila R, Priha O, Ali-Vehmas T, Terefework Z et al. Isolation and automated ribotyping of Mycobacterium lentiflavum from drinking water distribution system and clinical specimens. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2006;256: 236– 243 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Thomson R, Tolson C, Carter R, Coulter C, Huygens F et al. Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from household water and shower aerosols in patients with pulmonary disease caused by NTM. J Clin Microbiol 2013;51: 3006– 3011 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Masaki T, Ohkusu K, Hata H, Fujiwara N, Iihara H et al. Mycobacterium kumamotonense sp. nov. recovered from clinical specimen and the first isolation report of Mycobacterium arupense in Japan: Novel slowly growing, nonchromogenic clinical isolates related to Mycobacterium terrae complex. Microbiol Immunol 2006;50: 889– 897 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Rodríguez-Aranda A, Jiménez MS, Yubero J, Chaves F, Rubio-García R et al. Misindentification of Mycobacterium kumamotonense as M. tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis 2010;16: 1178 1180 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Lopeman R, Harrison J, Desai M, Cox J. Mycobacterium abscessus: Environmental bacterium turned clinical nightmare. Microorganisms 2019;7: 90 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Roux AL, Catherinot E, Soismier N, Heym B, Bellis G et al. Comparing Mycobacterium massiliense and Mycobacterium abscessus lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients. J Cyst Fibros 2015;14: 63– 69 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Cloud JL et al. Mycobacterium arupense sp. nov., a non-chromogenic bacterium isolated from clinical specimens. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2006;56: 1413– 1418 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Willumsen P, Karlson U, Stackebrandt E, Kroppenstedt RM. Mycobacterium frederiksbergense sp. nov., a novel polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading Mycobacterium species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2001;51: 1715– 1722 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Turenne C, Chedore P, Wolfe J, Jamieson F, May K et al. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium elephantis from human specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40: 1230– 1236 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Dean-Ross D, Cerniglia CE. Degradation of pyrene by Mycobacterium flavescens. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1996;46: 307– 312 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Schinsky MF, McNeil MM, Whitney AM, Steigerwalt AG, Lasker BA et al. Mycobacterium septicum sp. nov., a new rapidly growing species associated with catheter-related bacteraemia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2000;50: 575– 581 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Prevots DR, Marras TK. Epidemiology of human pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria: a review. Clin Chest Med 2015;36: 13– 34 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000857
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000857
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error