1887

Abstract

Fungi are critical organisms for the environment and offer many benefits to modern society through their application in the pharmaceutical, beverage and food industries. In contrast, fungal pathogens are emerging threats to humans, animals, plants and insects with potential to cause devastating mortality, morbidity and economic loss. Outbreaks associated with anthropogenic alterations of the environment, including climate change-related events such as natural disasters, are responsible for human, animal and plant disease. Similarly, fungi and their metabolites also have a negative impact in agriculture, posing a serious threat to our food supplies. Here, we describe the existing knowledge and importance of understanding the relationship of fungi and the environment in the context of human, animal and plant disease. Our goal is to encourage communication between scientists and the general public to create informed awareness about the impact of fungi in their daily lives and their environment.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000620
2018-03-01
2019-12-11
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/164/3/233.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000620&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Walsh TJ, Groll AH. Emerging fungal pathogens: evolving challenges to immunocompromised patients for the twenty-first century. Transpl Infect Dis 1999;1:247–261 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Alcoholic Beverages Market Expected to Reach $1,594 Billion, Globally, by 2022 – Allied Market Research. 2017;www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/alcoholic-beverages-market-expected-to-reach-1594-billion-globally-by-2022---allied-market-research-618354513.html
  3. Conick H. 2017; Global cheese market to exceed $100 billion by 2019. www.dairyreporter.com/Article/2016/01/19/Global-cheese-market-to-exceed-100bn-by-2019
  4. Armstrong GL, Conn LA, Pinner RW. Trends in infectious disease mortality in the United States during the 20th century. JAMA 1999;281:61–66 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Demain AL, Elander RP. The beta-lactam antibiotics: past, present, and future. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 1999;75:5–19 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Thakuria B, Lahon K. The beta lactam antibiotics as an empirical therapy in a developing country: an update on their current status and recommendations to counter the resistance against them. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:1207–1214 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Ioannidis JP. More than a billion people taking statins?: Potential implications of the new cardiovascular guidelines. JAMA 2014;311:463–464 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Wang B, Li H, Zhu L, Tan F, Li Y et al. High-efficient production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger from high concentration of substrate based on the staged-addition glucoamylase strategy. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2017;40:891–899 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Soccol CR, Vandenberghe LPS, Rodrigues C, Pandey A. New perspectives for citric acid production and application. Food Technol Biotech 2006;44:141–149
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Casadevall A. Fungal virulence, vertebrate endothermy, and dinosaur extinction: is there a connection?. Fungal Genet Biol 2005;42:98–106 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Robert VA, Casadevall A. Vertebrate endothermy restricts most fungi as potential pathogens. J Infect Dis 2009;200:1623–1626 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Fisher MC, Henk DA, Briggs CJ, Brownstein JS, Madoff LC et al. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health. Nature 2012;484:186–194 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Casadevall A, Pirofski LA. Host-pathogen interactions: redefining the basic concepts of virulence and pathogenicity. Infect Immun 1999;67:3703–3713[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Casadevall A, Pirofski LA. The damage-response framework of microbial pathogenesis. Nat Rev Microbiol 2003;1:17–24 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. O'Brien HE, Parrent JL, Jackson JA, Moncalvo JM, Vilgalys R. Fungal community analysis by large-scale sequencing of environmental samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005;71:5544–5550 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Casadevall A, Pirofski LA. Accidental virulence, cryptic pathogenesis, martians, lost hosts, and the pathogenicity of environmental microbes. Eukaryot Cell 2007;6:2169–2174 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Kohler JR, Hube B, Puccia R, Casadevall A, Perfect JR. Fungi that infect humans. Microbiol Spectr 2017;5:
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Martinez LR, Garcia-Rivera J, Casadevall A. Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) strains are more susceptible to heat than C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype A) strains. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39:3365–3367 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Perfect JR, Lang SD, Durack DT. Chronic cryptococcal meningitis: a new experimental model in rabbits. Am J Pathol 1980;101:177–194[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Casadevall A. Thermal restriction as an antimicrobial function of fever. PLoS Pathog 2016;12:e1005577 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Vajda V, Raine JI, Hollis CJ. Indication of global deforestation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary by New Zealand fern spike. Science 2001;294:1700–1702 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Maschmeyer G, Haas A, Cornely OA. Invasive aspergillosis: epidemiology, diagnosis and management in immunocompromised patients. Drugs 2007;67:1567–1601[PubMed][Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Rajasingham R, Smith RM, Park BJ, Jarvis JN, Govender NP et al. Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: an updated analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2017;17:873–881 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. The burden of fungal disease: new evidence to show the scale of the problem across the globe. 2017;www.life-worldwide.org/media-centre/article/the-burden-of-fungal-disease-new-evidence-to-show-the-scale-of-the-problem
  25. Murray CJ, Rosenfeld LC, Lim SS, Andrews KG, Foreman KJ et al. Global malaria mortality between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2012;379:413–431 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gauthier GM. Dimorphism in fungal pathogens of mammals, plants, and insects. PLoS Pathog 2015;11:e1004608 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Naruzawa ES, Bernier L. Control of yeast-mycelium dimorphism in vitro in Dutch elm disease fungi by manipulation of specific external stimuli. Fungal Biol 2014;118:872–884 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Cissé OH, Almeida JM, Fonseca A, Kumar AA, Salojärvi J et al. Genome sequencing of the plant pathogen Taphrina deformans, the causal agent of peach leaf curl. MBio 2013;4:e00055-13 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Gauthier GM. Fungal dimorphism and virulence: molecular mechanisms for temperature adaptation, immune evasion, and in vivo survival. Mediators Inflamm 2017;2017:1–8 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Inglis DO, Voorhies M, Hocking Murray DR, Sil A. Comparative transcriptomics of infectious spores from the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum reveals a core set of transcripts that specify infectious and pathogenic states. Eukaryot Cell 2013;12:828–852 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Boyce KJ, Schreider L, Kirszenblat L, Andrianopoulos A. The two-component histidine kinases DrkA and SlnA are required for in vivo growth in the human pathogen Penicillium marneffei. Mol Microbiol 2011;82:1164–1184 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  32. World Health Organization 2017; WHO definitions: emergencies. www.who.int/hac/about/definitions/en/
  33. Noji EK. Public health issues in disasters. Crit Care Med 2005;33:S29–S33 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Benedict K, Park BJ. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20:349–355 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Watson JT, Gayer M, Connolly MA. Epidemics after natural disasters. Emerg Infect Dis 2007;13:1–5 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Parente M, Tofani M, de Santis R, Esposito G, Santilli V et al. The role of the occupational therapist in disaster areas: systematic review. Occup Ther Int 2017;2017:1–8 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Ivers LC, Ryan ET. Infectious diseases of severe weather-related and flood-related natural disasters. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2006;19:408–414 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Bandino JP, Hang A, Norton SA. The infectious and noninfectious dermatological consequences of flooding: a field manual for the responding provider. Am J Clin Dermatol 2015;16:399–424 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Luo J, Cong Z, Liang D. Number of warning information sources and decision making during tornadoes. Am J Prev Med 2015;48:334–337 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Neblett Fanfair R, Benedict K, Bos J, Bennett SD, Lo YC et al. Necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis after a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011. N Engl J Med 2012;367:2214–2225 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Bennett JW. Silver linings: a personal memoir about Hurricane Katrina and fungal volatiles. Front Microbiol 2015;6:206 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Schwab KJ, Gibson KE, Williams DL, Kulbicki KM, Lo CP et al. Microbial and chemical assessment of regions within New Orleans, LA impacted by Hurricane Katrina. Environ Sci Technol 2007;41:2401–2406 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Reynolds SJ, Black DW, Borin SS, Breuer G, Burmeister LF et al. Indoor environmental quality in six commercial office buildings in the midwest United States. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 2001;16:1065–1077 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Douwes J, Pearce N, Heederik D. Does environmental endotoxin exposure prevent asthma?. Thorax 2002;57:86–90 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Bennett JW. The fungi that ate my house. Science 2015;349:1018 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Inamdar AA, Masurekar P, Bennett JW. Neurotoxicity of fungal volatile organic compounds in Drosophila melanogaster. Toxicol Sci 2010;117:418–426 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Empting LD. Neurologic and neuropsychiatric syndrome features of mold and mycotoxin exposure. Toxicol Ind Health 2009;25:577–581 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Schieffelin JS, Torrellas M, Lartchenko S, Gill F, Garcia-Diaz J et al. How natural disasters change natural patterns: coccidioidomycosis imported to New Orleans. J La State Med Soc 2013;165:145–149[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Schneider E, Hajjeh RA, Spiegel RA, Jibson RW, Harp EL et al. A coccidioidomycosis outbreak following the Northridge, Calif, earthquake. JAMA 1997;277:904–908 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Flynn NM, Hoeprich PD, Kawachi MM, Lee KK, Lawrence RM et al. An unusual outbreak of windborne coccidioidomycosis. N Engl J Med 1979;301:358–361 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Williams PL, Sable DL, Mendez P, Smyth LT. Symptomatic coccidioidomycosis following a severe natural dust storm. An outbreak at the Naval Air Station, Lemoore, Calif. Chest 1979;76:566–570[PubMed][Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Pappagianis D, Einstein H. Tempest from Tehachapi takes toll or Coccidioides conveyed aloft and afar. West J Med 1978;129:527–530[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Blehert DS, Hicks AC, Behr M, Meteyer CU, Berlowski-Zier BM et al. Bat white-nose syndrome: an emerging fungal pathogen?. Science 2009;323:227 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Lorch JM, Meteyer CU, Behr MJ, Boyles JG, Cryan PM et al. Experimental infection of bats with Geomyces destructans causes white-nose syndrome. Nature 2011;480:376–378 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Frick WF, Pollock JF, Hicks AC, Langwig KE, Reynolds DS et al. An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species. Science 2010;329:679–682 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Hoyt JR, Langwig KE, Sun K, Lu G, Parise KL et al. Host persistence or extinction from emerging infectious disease: insights from white-nose syndrome in endemic and invading regions. Proc Biol Sci 2016;283:20152861 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  57. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2012; North American bat death toll exceeds 5.5 million from white-nose syndrome. www.batcon.org/pdfs/USFWS_WNS_Mortality_2012_NR_FINAL.pdf
  58. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service White-nose syndrome. www.whitenosesyndrome.org/
  59. Verant ML, Boyles JG, Waldrep W, Wibbelt G, Blehert DS. Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome. PLoS One 2012;7:e46280 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Johnson JS, Reeder DM, McMichael JW, Meierhofer MB, Stern DW et al. Host, pathogen, and environmental characteristics predict white-nose syndrome mortality in captive little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus). PLoS One 2014;9:e112502 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Reeder DM, Frank CL, Turner GG, Meteyer CU, Kurta A et al. Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome. PLoS One 2012;7:e38920 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Warnecke L, Turner JM, Bollinger TK, Lorch JM, Misra V et al. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012;109:6999–7003 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Verant ML, Meteyer CU, Speakman JR, Cryan PM, Lorch JM et al. White-nose syndrome initiates a cascade of physiologic disturbances in the hibernating bat host. BMC Physiol 2014;14:10 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kalka MB, Smith AR, Kalko EK. Bats limit arthropods and herbivory in a tropical forest. Science 2008;320:71 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Williams-Guillén K, Perfecto I, Vandermeer J. Bats limit insects in a neotropical agroforestry system. Science 2008;320:70 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Boyles JG, Cryan PM, McCracken GF, Kunz TH. Conservation. Economic importance of bats in agriculture. Science 2011;332:41–42 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Berger L, Speare R, Daszak P, Green DE, Cunningham AA et al. Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:9031–9036 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Knapp RA, Briggs CJ, Smith TC, Maurer JR. Nowhere to hide: impact of a temperature-sensitive amphibian pathogen along an elevation gradient in the temperate zone. Ecosphere 2011;2:art93 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Voyles J, Young S, Berger L, Campbell C, Voyles WF et al. Pathogenesis of chytridiomycosis, a cause of catastrophic amphibian declines. Science 2009;326:582–585 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Schoegel Lm HJ, Berger L, Speare R, McDonald K, Daszak P. The decline of the sharp-snouted day frog (Taudactylus acutirostris): the first documented case of extinction by infection in a free-ranging wildlife species?. J Herpetol 2006;3:35–40
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Olson DH, Aanensen DM, Ronnenberg KL, Powell CI, Walker SF et al. Mapping the global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the amphibian chytrid fungus. PLoS One 2013;8:e56802 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Vredenburg VT, Knapp RA, Tunstall TS, Briggs CJ. Dynamics of an emerging disease drive large-scale amphibian population extinctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010;107:9689–9694 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Lips KR, Brem F, Brenes R, Reeve JD, Alford RA et al. Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:3165–3170 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Heyer WR, Rand AS, da Cruz CAG, Peixoto OL. Decimations, extinctions, and colonizations of frog populations in southeast Brazil and their evolutionary implications. Biotropica 1988;20:230–235 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Lips KR. Mass mortality and population declines of anurans at an upland Site in Western Panama. Conservation Biology 1999;13:117–125 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Laurance WF, McDonald KR, Speare R. Epidemic disease and the catastrophic decline of Australian rain forest frogs. Conservation Biology 1996;10:406–413 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Eskew EA, Todd BD. Parallels in amphibian and bat declines from pathogenic fungi. Emerg Infect Dis 2013;19:379–385 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kilpatrick AM, Briggs CJ, Daszak P. The ecology and impact of chytridiomycosis: an emerging disease of amphibians. Trends Ecol Evol 2010;25:109–118 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Farrer RA, Weinert LA, Bielby J, Garner TW, Balloux F et al. Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:18732–18736 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Wibbelt G, Kurth A, Hellmann D, Weishaar M, Barlow A et al. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 2010;16:1237–1243 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Ren P, Haman KH, Last LA, Rajkumar SS, Keel MK et al. Clonal spread of Geomyces destructans among bats, midwestern and southern United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2012;18:883–885 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Khush GS. What it will take to feed 5.0 billion rice consumers in 2030. Plant Mol Biol 2005;59:1–6 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Ou SH. Pathogen variability and host-resistance in rice blast disease. Annu Rev Phytopathol 1980;18:167–187[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Dean R, van Kan JA, Pretorius ZA, Hammond-Kosack KE, di Pietro A et al. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology. Mol Plant Pathol 2012;13:414–430 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Fry WE, Goodwin SB. Resurgence of the Irish potato famine fungus. BioScience 1997;47:363–371 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Padmanabhan SY. The great Bengal famine. Annu Rev Phytopathol 1973;11:11–24 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Ullstrup AJ. The impacts of the southern corn leaf blight epidemics of 1970-1971. Annu Rev Phytopathol 1972;10:37–50 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Peraica M, Radić B, Lucić A, Pavlović M. Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans. Bull World Health Organ 1999;77:754–766[PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Hussein HS, Brasel JM. Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicology 2001;167:101–134 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Reddy KRN, Salleh B, Saad B, Abbas HK, Abel CA et al. An overview of mycotoxin contamination in foods and its implications for human health. Toxin Rev 2010;29:3–26 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Fink-Gremmels J. Mycotoxins: their implications for human and animal health. Vet Q 1999;21:115–120 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Miraglia M, Marvin HJ, Kleter GA, Battilani P, Brera C et al. Climate change and food safety: an emerging issue with special focus on Europe. Food Chem Toxicol 2009;47:1009–1021 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Kebede H, Abbas HK, Fisher DK, Bellaloui N. Relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. Toxins 2012;4:1385–1403 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Bircan C, Barringer SA, Ulken U, Pehlivan R. Aflatoxin levels in dried figs, nuts and paprika for export from Turkey. Int J Food Sci Tech 2008;43:1492–1498 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Kuiper-Goodman T. Food safety: mycotoxins and phycotoxins in perspective. In Miraglia M, van Egmond H, Brera C, Gilbert J. (editors) Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins – Developments in Chemistry, Toxicology and Food Safety Fort Collins, CO: Alaken; 1998; pp.25–48
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000620
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000620
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error