1887

Abstract

Hypomyces perniciosus has been reported as a destructive pathogen of Agaricus bisporus. Previous research suggested that the pathogenesis may not only be perpetuated by H. perniciosus, but also by bacteria. Clarification of the interaction between A. bisporus and H. perniciosus is a prerequisite for the development of effective control measures against wet bubble disease. Here, the effects of H. perniciosus on A. bisporus mycelia are examined in dual culture on agar media and in open-ended test tubes. During disease development, the putative causal agents and cytology of wet bubble-diseased mushrooms were followed microscopically. The interaction between H. perniciosus and the basidiome of A. bisporus was also studied using dual-cultured H. perniciosus and basidiome tissues. Dual-cultured mycelia from both fungi showed that growth continued even after contact was made, without any observable antagonistic lines or cytoplasmic changes of A. bisporus mycelia. Hypomyces perniciosus could be isolated from diseased basidiomes any time after inoculation, but bacteria were only recovered after the basidiomes of A. bisporus had been killed by H. perniciosus. Dual culture of the basidiome tissue of A. bisporus and H. perniciosus on agar media established that H. perniciosus can independently and rapidly degrade the basidiomes of A. bisporus. We conclude that H. perniciosus has no pathogenic activity on the mycelial stage of A. bisporus, but it can destroy A. bisporus basidiomes in the absence of bacteria. Wet bubble disease is evidently not caused by bacteria, but by the fungus, although bacteria likely participate in the disease after invasion by the fungus.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000521
2017-08-31
2019-10-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/micro/163/9/1273.html?itemId=/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000521&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Fletcher JT, Jaffe B, Muthumeenakshi S, Brown AE, Wright DM. Variations in isolates of Mycogone perniciosa and in disease symptoms in Agaricus bisporus. Plant Pathol 1995;44:130–140 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Regnier T, Combrinck S. In vitro and in vivo screening of essential oils for the control of wet bubble disease of Agaricus bisporus. S Afr J Bot 2010;76:681–685 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Sharma VP, Singh C. Biology and control of Mycogone perniciosa Magn. Causing wet bubble disease of white button mushroom. J Mycol Plant Pathol 2003;33:257–264
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Fan JQ, Zhang H, Gong PZ, Wh H, Zhu YD. Integrated control technology of Mycogone perniciosa Magn. of Agaricus bisporus. Nothern horticulture 2012;06:168–170
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Umar MH, Geels FP, Van Griensven L. Pathology and pathogenesis of Mycogone perniciosa infection in Agaricus bisporus. Mushroom Science 2000;561–568
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Pieterse Z. Mycogone perniciosa, a pathogen of Agaricus bisporus. MSc Thesis. University of Pretoria, South Africa 2005;1–137
  7. Han YS, Shin KC, Kim DS. Some biological studies on Mycogone perniciosa Magn. causing wet bubble in cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Korean J Mycol 1974;2:7–14
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Huang QY, Wang S, Zhang Y. The interactions between Mycogone perniciosa and Agaricus bisporus. Mycosystemm 2014;33:440–448
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cao XT, Bian YB, Xiao XJ, Js L, Wang GZ. Effect of heat stress on Lentinula edodes mycelial growth recovery and resistance to Trichoderma harzianum. Acta Edulis fungi 2015;22:81–85
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Nitta T, Miyazaki K. The distinction of pathogenicity of contaminants in mycelial block cultivation of muschroom. Kyushu J. For. Res 2007;60:155–158
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Zhang CL, Jz X, Li D, Yp F, Song B et al. Cultivating relationship between Mycogone perniciosa and edible mushrooms. Journal of Northwest A & F University 2016;45:112–118
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Eastwood DC, Herman B, Noble R, Dobrovin-Pennington A, Sreenivasaprasad S et al. Environmental regulation of reproductive phase change in Agaricus bisporus by 1-octen-3-ol, temperature and CO2. Fungal Genet Biol 2013;55:54–66 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Osato T, Park P, Ikeda K. Cytological analysis of the effect of reactive oxygen species on sclerotia formation in Sclerotinia minor. Fungal Biol 2017;121:127–136 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Shi JL, Yq L, Km H, Ren JG, Liu HM. Isolation and identification of pathogens from rotted root of Pinellia ternata in Guizhou province. Microbiology China 2014;42:289–299
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Umar MH, van Griensven LJLD. Morphological studies on the life span, developmental stages, senescence and death of fruit bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Mycol Res 1997;101:1409–1422 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Lu DM, Yang DW, Zhong ZQ, Li YJ. The experimental study of the living bacteria by crystal violet staining. Journal of Qinghai Medical College 2008;29:263–265
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Shamshad A, Clift AD, Mansfield S. Host–parasite interaction between cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus hybrid strain Sylvan A15, and the mycoparasite Verticillium fungicola , a causal agent of dry bubble disease. Australasian Plant Pathology 2009;38:74–78 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hayes WA, Randle PE, Last FT. The nature of the microbial stimulus affecting sporophore formation in Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Ann Appl Biol 1969;64:177–187 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Zarenejad F, Yakhchali B, Rasooli I. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2012;28:99–104 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Wong WC, Preece TF. Pseudomonas tolaasi in mushroom crops: a note on primary and secondary sources of the bacterium on a commercial farm in England. J Appl Bacteriol 1980;49:305–314 [CrossRef]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Lugones LG, Bosscher JS, Scholtmeyer K, de Vries OM, Wessels JG. An abundant hydrophobin (ABH1) forms hydrophobic rodlet layers in Agaricus bisporus fruiting bodies. Microbiology 1996;142:1321–1329 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Lugones LG, Wösten HA, Wessels JG. A hydrophobin (ABH3) specifically secreted by vegetatively growing hyphae of Agaricus bisporus (common white button mushroom). Microbiology 1998;144:2345–2353 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Bernardo D, Cabo AP, Novaes-Ledieu M, Mendoza CG. Verticillium disease or "dry bubble" of cultivated mushrooms: the Agaricus bisporus lectin recognizes and binds the Verticillium fungicola cell wall glucogalactomannan. Can J Microbiol 2004;50:729–735 [CrossRef][PubMed]
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000521
Loading
/content/journal/micro/10.1099/mic.0.000521
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error